THE IMPACT OF THE INTRODUCTION OF THE COMPUTER ON THE SECRETARIAL PROFESSION (A CASE STUDY OF SELECTED BANKS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS)
Today, the business world is undergoing far-reaching
Technological revolution due to the advancement in science. For all types of organizations to succeed in today’s rapidly changing environment, they need to be able to be process data and information effectively.
In conducting them day to day operations organization use information for functions such as planning, controlling, directing, organizing and diction making. Information therefore is unique actionably a critical resources in the operations of all organization the business men, secretaries, students and in fact everybody, would now readily see the indelible impact of modern technology on people lives.
In an organization, information moves from person, forms are completed, filed and received and individuals communicate variety of both simple and complex concepts. At the turn of the century most written information were complied by hand in pen and ink copies were made by hand and communicated was by letter, telegraph or in person. Today most of the tedious functions related to information handling and processing are done through the computer.
For the secretaries, not only have their equipment changed, but also their administrative processes office routine management systems are similarly evolving into new forms. Computers have replaced manual typewriters and electric typewriter while for machines replaced telex machines. There are also different type of advanced communication gadget such as cellular phones, pager etc. With this radical change, the secretaries are expected to change and be able to keep up with all these professional changes around them. In accordance with the law of motion CHANGE is a constant phenomena. If we look at the beginning of man to the present day, we would see that there had been tremendous change. If there had not occurred, man would have remained primitive hill today. Change is a challenge and if we abide by change, it brings out the best in us thereby leading to erroneous progress.
The first office automatic machine were introduced 1930 and used paper rolls later paper tape as a form of memory. BY the 1960s the international business machine (IBM) had introduced the selective go If ball typewriter which allows the typist to change the print element, the go If – ball to provide a different type font (character design and sign) another break through was the introduction of IBM’s magnetic tape selective typewriter. This was followed by the introduction of a visual display unit (VDU) this allows the typist to see what I happening to the text as if being tyed amended and stored, but before it I being committed to paper or printed out. In fact, electronic systems are now possible that they can sense absorbs store, categorize ponder, very high quantity. Yet with greater accuracy, speed and reliability. Coventry, (1981) indicated that Recent development of the micro processor, founded on the silicon chips has potentials likely to have a vast social repercussion through out financial industry, for a simple chip take over a high proportion of today’s office job P.21. When we refer to computer system, we refer to information and communication system which are necessary for the functioning of the office. We assume that data processing and word-processing play a large role and also that human system under lie these technical systems. In an ideal situation therefore, the technology and the people function together harmoniously.
It is important to recognize that development and implementation of the computer is moving through several overlapping phases, each affecting differently.
In general, a distinction can be made between two classes of office workers. The first are the information worker they are those who are involved in the routine entry, recording, storage and transmission of information, those who fall under this group of worker include – Typist, secretaries, clerks and data entry personal.
The second group are the knowledge works-this group aconite of those worker who create, interpret, analyze and utilize this information these knowledge worker can be divided into two (2) groups professional/technical employees and managers.
The main impact of the computer is simply to facilitate office operation as they are now being carried out. For example the word professor replace the secretary’s type writers, the mini-computer replaces the clerk’s filing cabinets etc. More recently professionals and secretaries have begun using personal computers and sophisticated calculators to speed up their work. The timing of there development has largely been dictated by the emergence of the technology starting with the widespread introduction of word processor’s in the 1970’s, and it in the late 1970s and its legitimating as a business tool in 1981, with the introduction of the IBM P.C.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Up to the 190’s the use of the computer in this country was limited to very few multinational companies. The secretary then had to contend with using manual and electric typewriters in performing her word processing function.
Furthermore storage and retrieval of information was by use of files, filing cabinets, index cards etc. Accessing of other information had to be through telephone directories and other relevant specialized text meant for such purpose.
Many of the secretaries of the 80’s are still in employment. With the advent and widespread use of the computer are then wonders how these secretaries are adjusting to be new devices now prevalent in modern offices are they finding it easy or difficult? Is the profession generally under threat by the introduction of the computer and the Internet? What can be done to keep the secretary still relevant in to day’s modern business setting? These and many more are what this research aims to find solutions for.