The research project was on cash budgeting as a basis for decision making (A case study of Aguata Local Government Area).
The whole work has been divided into five chapters.
Chapter one, Introduces the project
Chapter two, talks on literature review
Chapter three takes care of the methodology
Chapter four is about data analysis and
Chapter five is about summary, conclusion and recommendation.
In carrying out this project the researcher applied two pronged approaches to sounding of data.
The two approaches were the primary and secondary source of data collection.
In case of the primary approach researcher developed a list of questionnaire which she distributed to respondents. The second data collection utilized library research, textbooks, journals and unpublished lecturers. The questionnaire is attached as an appendix on the end of the work.
The data were analysed in form of hypothesis by using chi-square form of analysis the researcher found out that some project were started and abandoned half way while some other establishments adhere strictly to their cash budgets.
In her conclusion, the researcher said that cash budgeting is an important management tool both in public and private sectors.
Finally, the researcher recommended that orientations programme should be organised for new staff, that modern accounting equipments should be bought and put in use, that monthly cash budget should be introduced to take care of fluctuations in the economy and that management should install effective financial rewards as motivation towards meeting the organisations budget objectives.
In management audit they attempted to aid the management of the organisation by providing it with information and analysis useful in the process of control.
Management audit can also be significant in financial accounting area.
For many year now, stockholders, potential investors and other interested parties have been concerned with the annual reports of major co-operations and the attached letter from the president of the corporation.
Accountants have been attempting to deal with this problem for some years now and many proposals have been presented to which management audit is the one that I think that has the greatest potential for the future. For both internal and external reporting purposes.
Who are capable for appraising performance both for accounting data and management analysis. If this appraisal were made and an opinion rendered, the management audit would be of significant benefit to internal and external parties alike.
The purpose of the audit is being the attestation of management’s representations of an independent examiner. By attestation I refer tot he reliability of management statements regarding its own decisions as proven by an independent third party.
The auditor’s financial statement examines the performance of the company accountable tot he stockholders for its decision.
Also management audit is a way of evaluating the performance of management in regard tot he decisions made, the efficiency of its operating and the attainment of corporate goals.
To this date, there has been little empirical research to determine the potential value of the management audit to users of the willingness of management audit process.
However, the management audit concepts it carefully designed could prove to be a most important development in the management appraisal field. With a view to improving management efficiency.
This research is intended to investigate the extend to which management auditing is applied by organization in Nigeria.
For example it is utilized by organisation as a tool of improving management efficiency made.
This research involves, library work, periodicals and consulted published professional journals.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
1.3 PURPOSE OF STUDY
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
1.6 FORMATION OF HYPOTHESIS
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
BRIEF HISTORY OF AGUATA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 BUDGETING AS A DECISION-MAKING TOOL
2.3 BENEFITS/ADVANTAGES OF CASH BUDGETING
2.4 PREPARATION OF CASH BUDGET
2.5 FUNCTIONS OF THE BUDGET COMMITTEE
2.6 STAGES OF CASH BUDGET PREPARATION
2.7 GUIDELINE FOR CASH BUDGET PREPARATION
2.8 OBJECTIVE OF CASH BUDGETING
2.9 ESSENTIAL OF BUDGETING
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 SAMPLE SIZE
3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS TOOL
3.5 DECISION RULE CHI-SQUARE
4.1 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
“For which of you desiring to build a tower does not first sit and account the cost whether he has enough to complete it” (Lk. 14:28).
Every rational economic unit has some objectives to attain. Individuals, corporate bodies or governments have objectives to achieve. To achieve their respective objectives, resources have to be made available. Unfortunately nature did not distribute her resources abundantly, whilst objectives and needs are numerous and varied as there are various economic units. But the means (that is resources) to satisfy those needs are very scarce. Thus one has to utilize his available resources effectively in order to realise what one want. To maximize the objective of an economic unit requires that one has to plan.
Planning, therefore is the process of determining the future course of action in order to attain a desired objective or a set goal. A business enterprise may have as its objective the erection of an addition factory in say, seven years time. It therefore draws up a plan to accomplish the task it has set for itself.
Because finance is scarce, thus each year the enterprise has to plan towards the building of the factory. This yearly explain is known as budgeting – a subset of corporate plan.
To a lay man, budget is just an estimate of how to spend money. To the government budget is an estimate of a plan of how resources are going to be supplied and utilized stated a quantitative and monetary terms within a specified period.
To accountant therefore budget is a quantitative statement in financial terms, prepared for a specific period, it may be one year for the realization of enterprise set goals. It is thus a very important decision-making instrument.
A budget is defined as a financial or quantitative statement, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of time, of the policy to be pursued for the purpose of attaining a given objective.
(A budget is the conversion usually by segments and on short range basis of plan into figures, an accounting as it were for the future).
A comprehensive budget is made up of functional or sub- budgets. Some of them are, sales budget, production budget, material purchase budget, factory cost budget, selling and administrative budgets, capital expenditure budget etc.