COST-VOLUME-PROFIT ANALYSIS AS A TOOL FOR PROFIT PLANNING AND CONTROL
This research investigation has focused on the use of cost-volume-profit analysis as a tool for profit planning and control using Nigerian Bottling Company Plc as a case study. The Nigerian Bottling Company Plc was facing lots of problem after it establishment in 1953, and these problems includes; low capacity utilization, shortage of foreign exchange to the needed raw materials and competitive market where only the fittest survive. Some of the objectives of the study are to identify the problems encountered in the practical application of CVP analysis, to examine some other techniques that can help in the profit planning and control and to identify the practical cost estimate involved in the application of CVP in Nigerian Bottling Company. The sources of data for the research includes primary and secondary sources and examples of primary sources of data is oral interview and questionnaires, while secondary data were collected from journals, textbooks and News papers. Chi-square was the tool used to test the hypothesis. After the testing of hypothesis, the findings made includes; other techniques were not superior to cost volume profit analysis, the company has managed to remain in the market inspite of the economic recession in Nigeria. In view of the above findings, the following recommendations were made; management must be well structured to make planning techniques feasible for adequate cost control purpose, workers should be made to known the objectives of the company and finally subordinates opinion should be sought in preparation of departmental estimate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page . . . . . . . . . . i
Certification . . . . . . . . . ii
Approval page. . . . . . . . . iii
Dedication . . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement . . . . . . . . v
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . vii
Table of contents . . . . . . . . viii
1.1 Background of the study. . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of the problem . . . . . 3
1.3 Objective of the study . . . . . . 4
1.4 Research question . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Hypotheses . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Significance of the study. . . . . . 6
References . . . . . . . . 8
2.1 Corporate planning functions. . . . . 12
2.2 Managerial and controlling functions . . . 14
2.3 Elements or steps in controlling . . . . 16
2.4 Measuring performance . . . . . . 17
2.5 Comparing performance with the standard . . 17
2.6 The concept of profit . . . . . . 19
2.7 Profit planning and control overview. . . . 21
2.8 Components of a comprehensive profit
planning and control . . . . . . 23
2.9 Need for profit planning and control . . . . 28
2.10Limitations of using profit planning and control . 29
2.11The nature of the costs . . . . . . 30
2.12Classification of cost . . . . . . . 31
2.13Cost-volume-profit analysis an overview. . . 33
2.14 Cost-volume-profit-analysis assumption . . . 34
2.15Breakeven traditional view of the cost-volume
profit relation . . . . . . . . 36
2.16 Other tools for profit planning and control . . 41
References . . . . . . . . . 46
Research design and methodology
3.1 Research Design . . . . . . . 47
3.2 Sources of data . . . . . . . 47
3.3Population. . . . . . . . . 49
3.4 Method of Investigation . . . . . . 52
Presentation Analysis and Interpretation of Data
4.1 Analysis of Data . . . . . . . 54
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis . . . . . . 72
Summary of Findings, Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings . . . . . . 86
5.2 Conclusion . . . . . . . . 89
5.3 Recommendations . . . . . . . 90
Bibliography . . . . . . . . 92
Appendix I . . . . . . . . 93
Appendix II . . . . . . . . 94
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In the recent times some industries are facing problems raised by expansion through increased sales and the introduction of varieties of product. Many on the other hand are facing problems of contraction due to the introduction of substitute materials and products or reduces demand for products whichever is the case, but it is important that management should be in a better position to plan for these changing level of activities.
Apart from the problem of contraction and expansion during the period of economic depression/doom respectively a business may be faced with the alternative of expanding/closing down or selling its products at a price below the total lost. Also profit planning and control is made more difficult by the changes of products and the action of competitors.
In order to solve the problems created by the above situations, profit planning, cost control and estimation, and decision making require an understanding of the characteristics of cost and their behaviour at different operating level.
One of the most important tools developed by accountants to assist management in meeting the challenges is the cost-volume-profit analysis.
According to Pandey (1990:138) the analytical technique used to study the behaviour of profit in response to changes in volume, cost and prices is called “the cost-volume-profit analysis”. It is a device used in determining the usefulness of profit planning process of the firm.
According to Harper (1982:130), cost is defined mathematically as “cost equals usage multiple by price, which means that cost is also analyzed while studying the behavour of profit in response to changes in volume and prices.
According to Horngren Foster and Dala (1997) cost estimation is the attempt to measure the past cost relationships between the total costs and the drivers of those cost. Infact, the entire field of profit planning has become associated with the cost-volume-profit relationship.
At the completion of this Study, the contribution made by the cost-volume profit analysis for the efficient profit planning and control in Nigerian Bottling company will be made known.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The challenges facing management are many particularly during this period of economic depression characterized by liquidation of companies, low capacity utilization, shortage of foreign exchange to buy the needed raw materials and the advance of competition where only the fittest enterprise survive. Management is faced with the problems of on how to make use of available scarce resources in order to achieve the objectives of the profit maximization.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To evaluate the extent to which the use of cost-volume-profit technique has helped in achieving the profit maximization of Nigerian Bottling Company Plc.
2. To identify the problems encountered in the practical application of CVP analysis and suggest possible solutions.
3. To examine some other techniques that can help in the profit planning and control.
4. To identify the practical cost estimation involved in application of CVP in Nigeria Bottling company
5. To highlight the importance of using cost-volume-profit over other firms or Enterprises
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How would cost-volume-profit analysis help the management of Nigerian Bottling Company to know which of the products to produce and achieve profit margin?
2. Will it afford the management the opportunity to know the changes in cost behaviour?
3. What are the likely affects of changes in the mix of products procedure and sold?
4. What are the likely effects of plant expansion and contraction?
The basic assumption of this research work is the application of cost-volume-profit analysis as a technique for profit planning and control in manufacturing company.
Ho: The introduction of cost-volume-profit analysis has significant effect on profit of manufacturing company.
Hi: The introduction of cost-volume-profit analysis has no significant effect on profit of manufacturing company.
Ho: The application of cost-volume-profit analysis has helped Nigerian Bottling company to be efficient and effective in its operations.
Hi: The application of cost-volume-profit analysis has not helped Nigerian Bottling company to be efficient and effective in its operations.
Ho: The introduction of cost-volume-profit analysis has helped Nigeria Bottling company to achieve profit maximization.
Hi: The introduction of cost-volume-profit analysis has not helped Nigeria Bottling company to achieve profit maximization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In a competitive world, turnover and profit are the factors which no manager can ignore. The significant of this study were as follows: