Effect Of Particle Size On Oil Yield Using Scent Bean Seed (‘ozaki’).

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ABSTRACT

 

This project was done to extract and characterize bean oil according to their particle sizes. The experiment was carried out using scent bean (i.e. ‘Ozaki’, ‘Ijilizi’or ‘Azamu’) as sample. The oils were extracted by solvent extraction / leaching extraction using n-hexane. Proximate analysis was carried out to obtain percentage moisture content, ash content, total oil content, protein content and carbohydrate content of the extracted oils. From observation, it was noticed that as the diameter of the sieve decreased, the quantity of oil obtained increased

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page…………………………………………………….... i

Certification……………………………………………………ii

Dedication……………………………………………………... iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………….. iv

Abstract………………………………………………………… v

Table of contents………………………………………………. vi

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction……………………………………………………..1

Background of study…………………………………………….1

Problem of statement…………………………………………….4

Objectives of study………………………………………………5

Significance of study…………………………………………….5

Justification of study…………………………………………….6

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review………………………………………………7

Preamble……………………………………………………….7

Importance of oils……………………………………………...8

Proximate composition of oil…………………….…………….10

Moisture content …………………………….…………………11

Ash content………………………...……………………………11

Crude protein……………………………………………………12

Crude fat…………………………………………………………12

Crude fibre………………………………………………………13

Carbohydrate…………………………………………………….13

Concept of vegetable oil extraction…...…………………………14

The role of moisture and temperature in oil extraction………….14

Traditional extraction of vegetable oil………………….………..16

Solvent extraction of vegetable oil/leaching method…………….17

Solvent characteristics……………………………………………18

Mechanical expression of vegetable oil…………..………………22

Quality oil assessment……………………………………………23

Objective method of assessing oil quality………………………..24

Properties of oil…………………………………………………..25

CHAPTER THREE

Materials and method……………………………………………..28

Raw materials and equipment used……………………………….28

Equipments………………………………………………………...29

Reagent ……………………………………………………………29

Oil extraction and separation experiments…………………………29

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Result and discussion………………………………………………31

Experimental results……………………………………………….31

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and recommendation……………………………………37

Appendixes…………………………………………………………..39

References……………………………………………………………42

CHAPTER ONE

1.0. INTRODUCTION

1.1.      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

There has been an increase in the world production of oilseeds over the last thirty
years (Murphy, 1994); this would appear to be related to the increasing demand for
oilseed products and by-products as oilseeds are primarily grown for their oil and
meal.

Oils from most edible oilseeds are used in the food industry, though there is
growing emphasis on industrial utilization as feedstock for several industries with
about 80% of the world production of vegetable oils for human consumption. The

remaining 20% utilization is between animal and chemical industries (Murphy,
1994).

According to Rajagopal   et al.          (2005), bio-oils from oilseeds are used as Straight

Vegetable Oil (SVO) or as biodiesel (trans esterified oil) depending on type of
engine and level of blend of the oil; scent bean oil i.e. Ozaki, Ijiliji, or Azamu   is
found  mainly  in  the  South-East  of  Nigeria  and  is  not  an  exception.  This
phenomenon has created a school of thought that it is better to use oilseeds as bio-
fuel, which will lessen the competition for fossil fuels, which are not renewable.
Fossil  fuels are not  only costly in terms  of price but are also  costly to  the 
environment as they degrade land, pollute water and cause a general destabilization of the ecosystem with global warming as an end result.   Furthermore, crude oil wields socio-political power that often dictates the pace of economic growth in specific locations, especially non-oil producing nations.

Nevertheless, the petroleum industry requires a greater quantity of oil to meet its demand.

Demand, however, by the food industry alone is not secure for many developing
countries like Ghana that depend on imports of vegetable oil and fossil fuels. In
order to meet the required amounts needed by all industries, these fats and oils
must be available in large quantities locally with an effective extraction process at
an affordable cost. The ability of a particular oilseed to fit into the growing
industries depends on its utilization potential, rate of production, availability and
ease of the processing technology. Thus while some oilseeds are being largely
utilized in the oil processing industries, quite a number of oilseeds are under-
exploited.

Generally, oils and fats from seeds and nuts constitute an essential part of man’s
diet. Fats and oils, together with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals,
are the main nutrients required by the human body. Fats and oils are rich sources of
energy, containing two and a half times the calories of carbohydrates (per unit
weight). In addition to being a source of vitamins A, D, E and K, fats and oils also contain essential fatty acids. These essential fatty acids are not manufactured by the body and must be obtained from diets, with linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids as examples of unsaturated fatty acids (NRI, 1995).

Modern  processing  of  vegetable  oils  yields  valuable  products  such  as  oleo
chemicals. Oleo chemicals are now largely being used in the manufacture of many
industrial products, namely building auxiliaries, candles, detergents and cleaning
agents, cosmetics, fire-extinguishing agents, flotation agents, food emulsifiers,
insecticides, lubricants, paints, paper, medicine and chemicals. The meal or cake is
used in the formulation and preparation of livestock feeds and food additives.

The production of oil plants takes third place in the world production in terms of
value, after starchy plants and fruits, and ahead of beverages and stimulants. Edible
seeds and nuts noted for their oil contents include palm nut, coconut, soya bean,
olive, groundnut, sunflower seed, and cottonseed, while non-edible seeds and nuts
include  jatropha  seed,  neem  seed,  and  castor  bean.  Moreover,  bean  oil  has
strengthened its dominant role among fats and oils produced based on its quality
and nutritional grade.   Bean oil contains linoleic, oleic and linoleic acids that are
found  in  many  plant  oils.  Shortage  of  these  fatty  acids  leads  to  deficiency
symptoms especially in growing children and animals. Bean oil has the highest
content of lecithin  (1.1-3.2%) which is a surface-active compound used as an emulsifier in the food and pharmaceutical industries, and other industries (Sigmund
and Gustav, 1991).

Among the industries that use oils and fats from oilseeds, apart from the food industry,   are   the   beauty,   pharmaceuticals,   aromatherapies,  building   and construction, and the petroleum industry.

 

 

 

 

1.2. Problem Statement

Many plants have been identified as sources of oil, with some of the plant species and their oil extracted and used as medicines and food. However, very few of these species have their oil characteristics determined.

Because of the high demand of oils for various purposes including medicinal,
perfumery, soap making, insecticides et al. Imported oils are very expensive to
meet  the  demands  of  our  local  consumer  industries;  therefore,  it  becomes
necessary to source and synthesize these oils locally. Since these oils can be
produced locally, it gives no reason for their importation or at least should reduce
the rate at which these oils are imported and give attention to local production.

 

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

 

The purpose of this study is to

 

a.  Find the percentage composition of oil in the bean seed

b. To determine the effect of particle size on the yield of the oil.

1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Exploitation of fruits and seeds as a source of oil can help to reduce oil costs by diversifying the sources for this commodity. Data generated from this study will benefit industries for production of oils for various purposes.

In addition the content and composition of fatty acids of plant seed oils can serve as plants taxonomic markers.

 

1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE RESEARCH

Some factors and benefits of bean (“Ozaki, Ijiliji or Azamu”) oil make the research worthwhile;

 

1      The bean is readily available.

 

2       Oil from this particular bean is medicinal and applicable in pharmaceutical

 

industries.

 

3        Small scale industries coming up as a result of oil extraction can reduce

 

unemployment.

 

4      It can attract foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria.

 

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