DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF INTRUDER DETECTOR ALARM SYSTEM WITH DIRECTION/LOCATION DISPLAY
This project work deals on the Design and Construction of Intruder Detector Alarm System with Direction/Location Display which is capable of detecting intrusion at any location, sound and alarm and display the exact location of the intruder using seven segment displays. This project work is realized using top down methodology with active and passive components available in the local market. It is realized in different modules, all combined to form one function unit. The inputs are opto-couplers configured with laser diodes and light Dependent Resistor. (LDR) which act as the electronic eyes installed at the sensory points. The control unit is made up of one short delay circuit, audio frequency generator, priority encoder and decoder, piezo-buzzer and single digit seven segment display. The system is packaged in a well furnished wooden material. This system does not record/display the intruder. In a case of simultaneous intrusion, the display shows the location with the highest priority. And the system is powered from MAINS supply. The result being a system which can detect intrusion,, sound an audible alarm and displays the exact location of the intruder. It has a wide a range of application in surveillance especially in industrial home security.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification page - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of content - - - - - - - - vii
List of tables - - - - - - - - - ix
List of figures - - - - - - - - x
1.1. Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2. General description - - - - - - 1
1.3. Aim and objectives - - - - - - 2
1.4. Project significance - - - - - - 2
1.5. Scope of the study - - - - - - - 3
1.6. Project report organization- - - - - - 3
2.1. Historical background of the study - - - - 4
2.2. User of Buglar alarm- - - - - - - 4
2.2.1. Application of burgular alarm - - - - - 5
2.3. The 74132 (Quad-2-input schimit trigger Nand gate) - - 5
2.4. The seven segment display - - - - - 6
2.5. The Ne555 timer - - - - - - - 8
2.6. The Optical light sensor using LDR - - - - 12
2.7. Other system components - - - - - - 15
3.1. Description of the system block diagram - - - 25
3.2. Block diagram representation of the system - - - 25
3.3. System design specification - - - - - 26
3.4. Power Supply Unit Design - - - - - - 27
3.5. Principle of operation of the system - - - - 28
3.6. System Design calculation- - - - - - 29
3.6.1. Design of the power supply circuit - - - - 29
3.6.2. Mono-stable multi-vibrator - - - - - - 30
3.6.3. Transistor Design - - - - - - - 30
Implementation, Testing and Result
4.1. Implementation - - - - - - - 31
4.2. Testing - - - - - - - 31
4.3. Result - - - - - - - - 32
4.4. Project packaging - - - - - - - 33
4.5. Bill of Engineering - - - - - - - 34
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1. Summary of achievement - - - - - - 36
5.2. Problem Encountered and solution - - - - 36
5.3. Conclusion - - - - - - - - 37
5.4. Recommendation - - - - - - 37
References - - - - - - - - 39
Use’s guide - - - - - - - - 40
LIST OF TABLES
2.1. Logic table of priority Encoder (74147) - - - - 6
2.3. Different symbols of resistor - - - - - - 17
2.4. Resistor color code - - - - - - - 18
4.1. Bill of engineering quality - - - - - - 34
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1. Physical layout of SSD - - - - - - 7
2.2 Schematic Diagram of Seven Display - - - - 7
2.3. Ne555 timer IC - - - - - - - 8
2.4. Internal block diagram of Ne555 Timer IC - - - 8
2.5. Pin out diagram of Ne555 timer IC - - - - 9
2.6. Standard Ne555 timer astable circuit - - - - 10
2.7. The symbol of a photo resistor - - - - - 12
2.8. Three photo resistor with scale - - - - - 13
2.9 Photo electric control - - - - - - 14
2.10 Resistor - - - - - - - - 15
2.11 Resistor connected in parallel - - - - - 16
2.12 Capacitor connected in parallel - - - - - 20
2.13 Transformer - - - - - - - - 21
2.15. A typical application of 708 regulator - - - 24
3.1 Block diagram of the system - - - - - 26
3.2. Block diagram of the regulated power supply unit - - 27
Appendix II Complete circuit diagram of the system - - 41
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
An educative system based on community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) will of necessary be global, ecumenical, inter-subjected very authentic and holistic in the promotion of high standard of education in primary schools in Enugu state with particular references to Udi local government area.
The aim of Using Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system as a solution to indiscipline is to build and sustain an acceptable and desired norms, customs and values of people existing in one or similar environment; this is because indiscipline is as result of lack of thinking and reasoning which leads to lack of control in the behavior of a group of people.
Therefore, Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system acts as the judiciously control of disruptive behavior of children in the classroom which militate against the normal class routine and practice with a view to creating a conductive classroom environment for effective teaching and learning.
Infact primary schools education is one of the most essential level of our education and training, therefore, care should be taken as high possible so that we can catch the learners in good time in an environment devoid of indiscipline.
Moreso, Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system leads and directs us from the mind of indiscipline to discipline and academic ignorant to academic human being.
1.2. POINT OF INQUIRY
Philosophers have proved beyond reasonable doubt that all academic problems besetting learners at different levels of our educational system is lack of thinking and reasoning in schools which brings about poor standard of education that gives attention to low performances in our academic pursuit.
Moreso, lack of Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system in our primary schools account for indiscipline, minimal interferences disorderliness, violence and occultism in the society.
1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The values Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system as a solution to indiscipline in primary schools is highly welcomed this is because, COIP4C educative system is very participatory, cooperating and democratic in theory and practice which will gradually lead to the development of self-discipline among the participants.
The system (COIP4C) commands discipline because it gives proper direct to the illilization of the energy of the pupils and not by suppressions. Moreso as a solution to indiscipline, the system encourage full participation promote metical understanding and cultivate shared responsibility which help the pupils to develop the ability to be a self without being selfish and to develop their acumen to become problem solvers instead of creating minimal interferences (indiscipline in the school.
Also, the system helps the pupils to develop the ability to think for themselves so that they might think authonously about moral problems and also help the pupils to develop and make good use of their mental, moral and physical power to challenge and explore the beliefs and values of the others to learn to be more thoughtful by “blessing” their decisions and action on reasonableness. It helps the pupils to forget all sorts of indiscipline in schools and encourage them to be clear in their thinking and be responsible and more deliberate in their judgement.
Also the system helps the pupils to discover and in -rent ideas rather than merely absorb and regurgitate the views of others. Therefore, according to Healing the Epistemic crisis in Education, Remedies for curbing indiscipline in schools is as follows.
Placing responsibility upon the pupils helps them to maintained indiscipline through the influence of the social group which will lead them to self discipline. Also discipline can be achieved by giving proper direction to the utilize of the energy of the pupils, this could be best achieved by organizing interesting and creative extra curriculum activities in schools.
Moreso, Indiscipline among pupils can be promoted if there is discipline among the teachers, therefore teachers must always realize that all their pupils. It is fact that nothing in the whole of educational cooperative attitude among the pupils and love of schools than an attractive and wholesome environment.
Therefore cases indiscipline are of low practices in schools endowed with good furniture, well equipped and efficiently managed library and sufficient classroom. Also some activities in the schools such as gardening, clay modeling, painting and so on build up some of the basic requirements for success in life such as the spirit of service, observation, determination and courage. Such activities provide opportunities for happiness and elimination of boredom and development of invention initiative and emotional control in the pupils.
Infact the study is about using Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system as a solution to indiscipline; This is because the new paradigm shift; the missing link or the self realization system of education (COIP4C) is based on the belief that learning occurs when pupils are actively involved in process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information which foster critical thinking, Creative thinking, Big picture thinking, Synergic thinking, higher order thinking, Global thinking, Possibility thinking and Unselfish thinking and creates motivated independence individuals that will never in life think or depend on indiscipline attitudes.
Therefore Infact the study is about using Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system is the most modern innovation educative and holistic system of teaching and learning which include reasonableness, democratic attitude, spirit of fallibilistic flexibility and the values of critical, creative and caring thinking in the pupils’ mind.
The system bring about the final analysis of the following
Indiscipline is schools
Low pupils performance
Certificated not certified
Half Baked individuals
Truancy and Bullying in schools
Cultism and violence
1.4. SCOPE (OR DELIMITATION)
The researcher is very happy to express to the readers that she is not claiming to have collected all the information concerning the delimitation of the study.
The researcher selected five primary schools out of ninety one schools in Udi local government area in order to collect immediate facts concerning the topic immediate facts concerning the topic in question.
The five schools are as follows
1. Central school Abia
2. Premier primary school Udi
3. Community primary schools Nachi
4. Southwest primary scho0ol Amokwe
5. Central school Nsude.
It was the intention of the researcher to visit many schools to gather more information relating to the study but due to some constraints and time factors, the researcher considered it necessary and appropriate to visit the five schools.
Another hindrance is on my target audience, some of the teachers and pupils visited in the schools have little or no idea about Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) of educative system, therefore limited dates was collected.
Good class management is the key to class management there is a positive approach to class activities; therefore, there is no positive approach to teaching and learning in the classroom; every activity is based on the teacher; which is teacher centered system of education. The model the teacher has full responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, when it will be learned and if the material has be learned; therefore the researcher assumed that government should introduce Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) system education which provide highly motivated, conscientious and efficient education in our educational curriculum.
Moreso, the researcher assumed that there are poor academic performances in our school which need the introduction of self realization or learner centered system of education which will move us from all sorts of indiscipline to behavioural discipline in our schools and society at large.
Moreover, in order to carry the researcher work very effectively the researcher formulated some questions:- thus
vThere are indiscipline in our primary schools.
vThere are poor academic performances in our schools
vTeachers allow pupils to ask question.
vGovernment should introduce Community of Inquiry philosophy for children (COIP4C) system in our curriculum.
vSchooling without thinking brings about indiscipline.
1.6. DEFINITIONS OF BASIC TERMS
- COIP4C Community of Inquiry Philosophy for children
- COI Community of Inquiry
- P4C Philosophy for children
- ATCOICOE African thinkers community of Inquiry college of Education
- ESUT Enugu state University of Science and Technology
- IAPC Institute for the advancement of Philosophy for children
- Fallibility Flexibility Self Correction
- U.S.A United State of America