INDUCING SELF-RELIANCE IN NIGERIA THROUGH THE TEACHING OF THINKING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
This study examined the reforming Nigerian Secondary education by teaching of thinking. This exercise begins with chapter one which dealt on the overall introduction or backgrounds of the study, statement of the problem which led to the research study, the objective of the study and the significance of the study, scope and limitations, hypothesis is as well the terminologies used in the content. Chapter two emphasized on the definitions of thinking and the Nigerian system of education as well as the reforming of Nigerian secondary education by teaching of thinking. Chapter three focused on the exposition of reforming Nigeria secondary education by teaching of thinking and the problems existing without thinking in Nigerian secondary education. Chapter four was all about the data analysis as well as the application of thinking in Nigeria secondary schools, the best approach to the improvement of children thinking and also educational reformation through thinking (P4C). Chapter five summarizes the findings through conclusion, Educational implications, recommendation, Limitation of the study and suggestion for further studies. There is however bibliography.
Table of contents
Title = = = = = = = = = = i
Approval = = = = = = = = = ii
Abstract = = = = = = = = = iii
Chapter one: introduction
1.0 Introduction = = = = = = = 1
1.1 Background of the study = = = = = 1
1.2 Statement of the problem = = = = = 4
1.3 Significance of the study = = = = = 7
1.4 Scope of the study = = = = = = 9
1.5 Target audience = = = = = = = 10
1.6 Research Questions = = = = = = 10
2.0 Review of literature = = = = = = 12
2.1 What is self-reliance = = = = = = 12
2.2 Definition of thinking = = = = = 13
2.3 Thinking in the teaching field = = = = 20
2.4 Assessment of thinking = = = = = 31
3.0 Expose of the study = = = = = = 41
3.1 Schooling without thinking in ours schools = 41
3.2 Effects of lack of thinking = = = = = 49
4.0 Implication of the study = = = = = 52
4.1 The application of thinking to Nigerian secondary
Schools = = = = = = = = 52
4.2 Educational reforming through philosophy
for children = = = = = = = 59
Summary, conclusion and recommendations = = 64
5.1 Conclusion = = = = = = = 64
5.2 Implication of the findings = = = = 66
5.3 Recommendation = = = = = = 68
5.4 Limitations of the study = = = = = 70
5.5 Suggestions for further studies = = = 71
References = = = = = = = 72
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The ability to see beyond the limits of assumptions makes the failure of planning very rare. The societal growth and development is dependent on the strength of the planning and the level of the implementation. This is because the ability to plan creditably is not the ability to carry the plan to the fullest.
Nigerian secondary education, like its counterpart in the world, is the stepping stone to educational growth and development. People are moulded and given the strength to make further achievements in the educational field through their secondary education. This entails that once the foundation is strong, the base for the growth and development of the other areas of life would be assured. This would be of a great importance to the realization of the country’s goals and aspirations.
When the secondary education is able to make its needed impact, the crisis that could rise in the subsequent areas would be avoided. Suffice this, is to say that the basically ingredients for the emergence of authentic secondary education in Nigeria was not given a serious thought by the departed foreign powers. Even in the planning of the pattern for the implementation approach that does not encourage the thinking among the people. And it is observable that thinking is the stepping stone towards the socio-political and economic development of the people.
The views of Eze (2001) showed development gives room for self esteem, freedom and creative initiative of the persons and the country in general. The pressing question becomes what would be the pre-requisite to the realization of this noble trend in the life of Nigeria. Our secondary school is charge with the duty of initiating the child into the basic life racy and innumeracy. It is equally to guide learner in the art of reflective thinking and scientific inquiry. But the realization of this noble role is far from the real.
The study is search for the basic ingredients to the realization of a functional secondary school system that would engender scientific inquiry and the thinking ability in the lives of Nigerians. It is very much assured that the introduction of the critical thinking, creative thinking, caring thinking, systems thinking, synergic thinking, Ecumenical thinking, mathematical thinking and other forms of thinking that make up our higher order thinking that the Nigerian problems of academic enslavery and moral decadence would be solved.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Everybody seems convinced that our youths are far from the expected leaders of tomorrow which we all sign that they are evident that the students initiate what they see in the environment which implies that with the adequate supply of the needed environmental stimuli, the students would live up to the expectations of the society. But the questions remains: are these children playing their roles as we expect of them?
Secondary education is aimed at providing the necessary background to the thinking and problem-solving in the students and also in the adult world. Is this role realizable in our society? Why are our children in the moral quagmire they are in today? Anih stated that the good will alone in our academic curriculum is not alone. Taking it biblically he lamented that good will when not followed by action avails us nothing. The next question becomes: How can the students be assisted to think and be reasonable in themselves? How can the foundation of their formed education, which is the secondary school be made to play this role very well? The level of schooling without thinking in the society is pointing to the fact that once the secondary level is very shaky that the effect would spill over to the other levels of education. This could attest to why several of our own graduates become job seekers instead of employment creators. Education in the country has not been able to raise the dependency syndrome which the colonialists systematically put in our inherited formal education.
The teachers are seen as being veritable to the unfolding of education too. This is telling us that the quality of the teacher is very important in the course of the students development. The big question becomes whether our teachers are ground in the facts and skills of thinking. How can a teacher who was not taught to think, be able to teach thinking to secondary school pupils. If it is true that one does not give what he/she does not have, how can the improvement of our secondary education be achieved in the face of modern educational crises?
It is pertinent to note that much of our subjects in the schools are already tabulated. What would thinking do in the already devised education in which the subjects have already been designed pedagogically? The focus of this research would then be the patterns through which thinking can be applied in the learning of English, mathematics, Elementary science, Igbo language, and even other subject in the secondary school curriculum.
The teaching of thinking would engender some kinds of reformation in our society. It is to be convinced as the backbone to the ushering in the pure development of democratic values and the life that would be value-oriented. Unfortunately these are not present in our society today.
1.3 Significant of the study
The first beneficiary to the introduction of thinking in the secondary education is our teacher education and the teachers themselves. The instruments for the effective teaching should be the effective teaching should be the concern of efficient teachers. In our conceptions of the teacher as an academic midwife, it is evident that no teacher would be happy if the academic progress is still born. The teachers in the field and the teachers in the colleges of education would see this innovations as the path to the unlocking of the children’s thoughts. They would find the classroom interesting when the community of inquiry approach is utilized to usher in thinking in the pupils.
The study would be of a strong benefit to the pupils. The introduction of thinking in the secondary section is the path to their self realization. This would entail that the products of this great reformation would be free from the schedule patterns of learning that colonizes and dehumanizes. The outcome of this work would serve as boost to the freedom of the learners who would be made to reason through thinking in place of memorizing through rote-learning and cramming of the pre-determined learning outcome.
The experts in curriculum planning would use this in the coming of the problems of live up its educational challenges. They would use this study as a guide to the there eddying of the schooling without thinking which is presently constituting the cog in the wheel of our development. Finally, this study would be a boost to the development of moral functional and personnel development in Nigeria. The outcome could be a pointer to the reasons behind the kind of life that our school leavers are living. Thinking creates room for reflection and this is the path to deeper understanding of phenomena. The improvement of the secondary section is the improvement of the over all facts of the society.
1.4 Scope of the study
The research concentrated on the secondary school as the case study. This is because of the need for thinking from the onset of the education of the child. Thus, the views may not be adequately applicable to the secondary schools and the tertiary education.
The design is restricted to Nigerian secondary schools. Therefore, it could be long to generalize this to other comprises of the world where thinking is taking place already.
This study would x-ray the meaning of thinking, the various types f thinking and the use of thinking in the community of inquiring in the secondary schools and the patterns of instruction while use thinking in the various subjects of the secondary schools. The researcher would equally look into the possible constraints to the improvement of the secondary education through the use of thinking and then the recommendation of the possible solutions to the identified problems.
1.5 TARGET AUDIENCE
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) To what extent has over dependence on conventional and traditional practices affected human development?
2) In what ways can cross pollination of ideas be effective in our society?
3) What roles can individual play in the implementation of National/governmental Policies?
4) What can people do to become vibrant and active citizens?
5) How can each person in Nigeria contribute to Nation’s building?