Design And Construction Of A Multiperpose Security System With Alarm And Display

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MULTIPERPOSE SECURITY SYSTEM WITH ALARM AND DISPLAY

ABSTRACT

 

This project report is a thesis written specifically to cover the design analysis construction, test and packaging of a multipurpose security system from electric component that can be easily be obtainable from the market.

The report discusses the various unit and stages of the alarm system, thesis include:-

a)     Clock generation and frequency division unit.

b)    The control and section unit, comprising of a one shot 555 timer multiplexer, sound amplifier and the latch.

c)     The detection and switching unit made up of the fire and burgler sensors and priority encoder.

d)    The output unit comprising of the visual display and audio systems. These units have been lucidly represented with block diagrams and the calculations and the analysis of each component in the circuit of each block were done in the subsequent chapters of this part.

          However, my own project is designed to serve three purposes: to detect human touch, burglar operation and to detect fire, giving the corresponding alarms and indications.

          In a situation where there is a need to monitor the movement of people in a confidential building or a restricted area or to alert security-men in the case of fire outbreak, multipurpose security system is an electronic gadget which detect human shadow, human touch and fire and alert security-men through an alarm and equally display the particular room or area in which the target was hit.

The multi-purpose security system uses Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) to sense human shadow, touch switch to sense human touch and thermistor to sense fire.

          The circuit is enclosed in such a way that if he sensor are installed in each various room, say room 1,2 and 3 etc. If an intruder wants to break through, say room 2 once he touches the handle of the door, the touch sensor senses his touch, then triggers an alarm and display room 2 on a big display board. If to say, there is fire outbreak in the same room 2 the fire sensor will sense it, trigger an alarm and equally display room 2. This is also application to all the room that has the sensor.

          Multipurpose security system can equally be applied in banks, industries, financial institutions, schools and home to help safeguard lives and property.

 

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1            Block diagram of multi-purpose alarm system

3.1            Flowchart on design and construction procedures

4.1            Internal circuit of 555 timer IC

4.2            Astable multivibrator circuit using inverters

4.3            Output waveform of 555 timer oscillator

4.4            Astable circuit configuration, using Rb = Rs + Rp

4.5            One short configuration using 555 timer IC  unit

4.6            Waveform of triggered mode

4.7            One shot multivibrator circuit

4.8            Pin configuration of 74LS191

4.11                 Functional block diagram for 74LS153

4.14       Circuit diagram of frequency multiplexer 74LS153

a)     Basic common-emitter circuit         

b)    Load-line construction.

4.21       Transistor amplifier arrangement with signal symbol

4.22       Transistor amplifier arrangement with signal symbol

4.23       Amplifier configuration component values

4.31                 Pin configuration of 74LS175

4.32                 Functional block diagram of Quadruple D-type FF (74LS175)

4.41                 Typical IC encoder

4.42                 8 line-to-line priority encoder 74LS148

4.44                 Bimetallic heat detector

4.45                 Time temperature curve

5.1            Isometric diagram of package multi-purpose alarm system.

 

LIST OF TABLES

4.01       Table of various frequencies of operation from the oscillator unit

4.11       Table of result of frequency derision

4.12       Table for the  74LS153 multiplexer operation

4.31                 Functional table for D-type flip flop 74LS175

4.41       Functional table of 74LS148 priority encoder.

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

IC      Integrated Circuit

O/P    Output

I/P     Input

Vcc    +5 Volt Supply

GNDGround or Earth

NE    Segment

FF               Flip Flop

TTL            Transistor-transistor logic

CMOS        Complementary Metallic Oxide Semi Conductor Logic

CLK            Clock

CLR            Clear

F                 Frequency

C(exp)        Exponential

C/M            Count Up

C/O             Count Down       

EL               Enabled Input

EO              Enabled Output

NPN           Negative-Positive-Negative

VCE              Collector Emitter Voltage

VBE              Base-Emitter Voltage

VCB              Collector Base Voltage

Sat              Saturation

IC               Collector

IB               Base Current

RB               Base Current

L/S              Loud Speaker

KΩ             Kilo ohms

KHZ           Kilo-hertz

Dip             Dual in line package

V                Volts

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of tables

List of abbreviations

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Objective of the project

Project layout

Background information

Block diagram

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

 

CHAPTER THREE

Detection and switching unit

Fire detector

Human shadow detector

Human touch sensor

The hatch circuit

The alarm circuit

The display board

Power supply unit

 

CHAPTER FOUR

Methodology

Obtaining project topic and specifications

Choosing a suitable circuit

Selecting component values

Circuit analysis

Construction and testing

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Design analysis

Frequency generation

Clock generation

Amplification stage

Operation of a transistor

Switching operation of a transistor

Transistor biasing

 

CHAPTER SIX

Test, demonstration and packaging

Test analysis

Voltage test

Continuity test

Clock test

Demonstration

Packaging

Construction

Tools and materials

IC sockets

Construction aids

Procedure

Precautions

 

CHAPTER SEVEN

Conclusion and Recommendations

REFERENCES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

          The present and likely to continue state of the world economy as a whole and that of Nigeria as yet a developing country in particular has made life uncomfortable and unsatisfactory for the masses.

Every day, we hear of wars, conflicts, monumental natural disasters, fatal accidents, tribal, racial and religious clashes, to mention just a few.

All these phenomena always lead to wanton destruction of life and properties worth millions of naira.

          As a result of these ugly situations today in our country in particular coupled with unemployment, which has led to decline in the standard of living, crime wave has escalated. Because the youths and the young school leavers could not secure any job, which could have kept them busy.

And since the idle mind is the devils workshop, they indulge in all sorts of  heinous and scandalous crimes in other to make ends meet. Assassination, high-way robbery, house become burglary, arson, car snatching, etc  have become the order of the day. Criminals purposefully set public markets ablaze In order to cart away peoples hard earned merchandise from the markets. Hence the incessant burning of our markets of recent.

 

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Design And Construction Of A Multiperpose Security System With Alarm And Display

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