AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RADIO CAMPAIGN ON HIV-AIDS AWARENESS AND PREVENTION IN NIGERIA
Radio is one aspect of broadcasting tool that has become one of most important potent forces in the world today. It influences, educates the society as a whole. The power in radio is much that it tell real life situation with instance especially when it comes to educational broadcasting. In order words, it stimulates curiosity about new things or happenings and highlighting the level of general knowledge. In an attempt to provide answers to the problems or questionnaires underlying this study, each of the research question are analyzed one after the other using the methods of stratified random research. The towns making up Nsukka local government will be treated as stated about. It is imperative to reinstate the fact that 10 questionnaires were given out and collected from each of the eleven towns to be used in our sample population making the number of questionnaire issued and collected to be 110. The researcher, however, believes that more enticing programmes on the HIV/AIDs scourge should be broadcast on Radio station in order to increase its popularity for the sake of some people that do not find the campaign interesting.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 7
1.3 Objective of study to Evaluate the Effectiveness
of Radio Campaign on HIV/AIDS 8
1.4 Significance of Study 9
1.5 Research Questions 10
1.6 Research Hypotheses 10
1.7 Theoretical Framework 11
1.8 Scope of the Study 14
1.9 Limitation of the Study 15
1.10 Definition of Terms 15
CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW 18
2.1 Sources of Literature 18
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature 37
2.3 Summary of Literature 41
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 44
3.1 Research Design 46
3.2 Area of Study 47
3.3 Research Population 47
3.4 Research Sample 48
3.5 Sampling Technique 48
3.6 Instrument of Data Collection 50
3.7 Method of Data Collection 51
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 51
3.9 Expected Results 52
CHAPTER IV:PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS 54
4.1 Data Presentation and Interpretation 54
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis 55
4.3 Discussion of Results 71
CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 74
5.1 Summary 74
5.2 Conclusion 75
5.3 Recommendation 77
1.11Background of Study
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first diagnosed in the United States of America in 1981. The disease being caused by a germ (virus) is spread mainly through sexual contact with an infected person who has the virus. AIDS is a disease that can kill because there is no cure or vaccine to prevent it, its epidemic is a global health problem that threatens human existence on this planet and it is also important to note that AIDS is actually a syndrome which is a confection of various syndromes.
HIV infection has three main modes of transmission, sexual contact, blood transfusion and from mother to child. Its mode of infection was formerly believed to be exclusive to homosexual, but now the long reaching arms of AIDS can get to any one: Homosexuals and heterosexual alike. Infact it has been found out that heterosexual’s relationship constitute the major mode of transmission, especially in Africa. But one thing is certain; AIDS is a global threat to human existence. World Wide millions of people are already infected with the virus. The World Health Organizations (WHO) estimate about 10 20 –million new HIV infections by the year 2013 mostly from developing countries like Nigeria.
The need to educate people about HIV/AIDS infection and its consequences can not be overemphasized. AIDS is a medical problem as well as social problem with serious economic, political, ethical and moral implications.
AIDS monitor j(1994: 2) reported that in Africa as a whole, an estimate of every 40 persons was infected between one-fifth and one quarters of otherwise health adults of child bearing age. The UNICEF calculates that in the countries of east and central Africa that if HIV infection trends continues up to five and one half million children under the age of 15 years will be orphaned by the year 2013. Reports, however, shows that the rate of its spread in Nigeria gets faster every year and the infection spreads rapidly, an instance was between 1986 and 1992, up to 530 cases of AIDS were reported from hospitals throughout the country. This was only the iceberg because for every reported victim, 100% healthy looking carriers are found (NDC Sweenay, 1995: 10 – 11).
Most Nigerians, in spite of all the alarming reports, still remain unimpressed by the reality of HIV/AIDS. To many, AIDS is only a myth and just a device to frighten people from sexual escapable, the name alone is enough to cause the virus.
Generally, Nigerians are still in the common stage in discussion about HIV/AIDS, social stigma against people living with virus and their families have discouraged meaningful discussion and appreciation of the presence of their family, social gathering or community. An east African government minister once advised, “Take heed of our experience when AIDS hits us we did not have the advance warning and knowledge that you have (M.C> Weeney, 1995: 18).
The same thing should be said to Nigerians, for posterity, this country needs to fasten up to avoid the east African’s experience. A lot of information positive and negative, true and false, is in free circulation. We need to evaluate this syndrome of HIV/AIDS in the interest of the general public especially for our young people.
The Role of Radio
The radio being called media of mass communication are those channels of information which can make the same message simultaneously available to a large number of people individually or in groups of varing sizes separated by distance from the source of the message.
In the modern society, it will be a wonderful threat to be without newspaper, magazine, radio, television and internet. The radio means a lot to many people and serve a variety of functions depending on the type of political and economic system in which the media functions, the stage of development of the society and the interest and needs of specific individuals. The major weapons which the radio uses in blowing their trumpets are editorials, features, stories or articles, news analysis/commentaries and documentary.
The extraordinary Russian religious nationalist and anti-communist dissident Alexander Solzhenitsyn mused:
“The press has become the greatest power within western countries, more powerful than the legislature, the executive and the judiciary” Adding to it Sylvanus A. Ekwelie said that radio has become one of the most powerful forces of communication in the history of civilization. The influence of radio in our society is far reading and it has not been touched by a science action or stories about the programmes on radio so also, people from reform reinforce or changes pinion on the basis of a programme or presentation heard on any of the electronic media. However, radio receives praises for good programmes and services and has helped people in the society to become aware of the effects mode by the federal government to advance national development through programmes like family planning HIV/AIDS, etc. It has also made people around the world to be aware of the influence such programme could have on them
Educationally, radio campaign can be forced on people not only through purposeful educational programming, but through documentaries and entertainment programmes just like advertisement can In form people of now products/brands that may meet their specific needs.
1.12Statement of Research Problem
This is the most crucial problem facing mankind in the maintenance and preservation of life, protecting life is when government see it as a duty for its citizens to formulate ideas, policies and activities aimed at achieving good health for its citizens. The problem is no longer that of catering with the teeming populations especially in the developing countries but that of battling with high immorality rate. High immorality rate of these health campaigns being carried out by the federal government in achieving health for all by the year 2013 are HIV/AIDS campaign, guinea worm campaign, breastfeeding campaign etc.
But then, government has always initiated moves at getting the people known about its policies and programmes through the radio communication. But little attention is paid by the government on how these campaign are evaluated to the masses. They form the basic of study which will evaluate the impact of Radio campaign on HIV/AIDS on adoption.