CULTURAL INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN PROGRAMME IN BROADCASTING
(A CASE STUDY OF ‘CHANNEL O’ PROGRAMME ON ENUGU RESIDENTS)
This survey seeks to examine the influx of foreign television channels like ‘Channel O’ on the culture of third world countries like Nigeria. It assumes that foreign programmes in broadcasting have debase the culture of Nigeria.
The researcher uses the survey method with techniques, like questionnaire administration and interviews. In the bid to achieve her aim, the researcher uses Enugu, as her case study and studied the two local government areas that make up Enugu city that is.
This study calls for the re-awakening of broadcast regulatory bodies like the National Broadcasting Commission (NBC) censorship board, broadcasting stations, parents among others to their responsibilities to the society.
The recommendation and suggestion at the end of the study will go a long way in correcting this anomaly.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
COVER PAGE I
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 2
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 6
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7
1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 9
1.7 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 10
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 11
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 11
LITERATURE REVIEW 14
2.0 INTRODUCTION 14
2.0.1THE NIGERIAN BROADCASTING MEDIA 19
2.0.2THE NIGERIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE 21
2.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 22
2.2 PROGRAMME CONTENT OF NIGERIA
BROADCASTING MEDIA 23
2.3 OVER DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN
PROGRAMME AND ITS CONSEQUENCE. 27
2.4. ‘CHANNEL O’ PROGRAMMES YOUTH AND MORAL 30
2.5 FOREIGN PROGRAMME AND CULTURAL INFLUENCE 32
2.6 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW 34
3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 38
3.2 POPULATION, SAMPLING AND SAMPLING
3.3 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION 39
3.4 VALIDATION FOR THE INSTRUCTION 40
3.5 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 40
3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 41
4.1 PRESENTATION OF DATA 43
4.2 ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS 53
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 65
5.1 SUMMARY 65
5.2 CONCLUSION 67
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 69
5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES 71
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Digital Satellite Television (DSTV) came from satellite communication network called (Pertec) which act as mirror in the transmission process, beaming the service providers signal back to the satellite dish.
DSTV have 32 channel here in Enugu State these include CNN, BBC world, sky news, movie magic, movie magic 2, Mnet, Africa Magic, Discovery channel, MTV, cartoon network etc.
The Electronic media Network limited (M-Net) was founded in 1985 (http://www.mnet.co.2a/emc/) as South African’s first private subscription television service. The first broadcast comprising one, 12 hour channel went out in October 1986. Today mnet boasts an array of general entertainment and rich channels and broadcasts to over 23 million subscribers in 41 countries across Africa (http:/www.mnet.co.2a/emc/) which Nigeria is one.
‘Channel O’ is located at Randbury in South Africa (Channel O@mnet.co.2a).
‘Channel O’ which is m-net 24 hours music lifestyle channel made its debut in Africa on Friday 17th October 1997 at 6 pm with its first show up close featuring Joe Nina.
‘Channel O’ is committed to bringing its viewers the best they’re ever seen, featuring the best in African music, to smooth jazz, inspirational sounds, hardcore rap, wicked reggae, sweet soul etc.
‘Channel O’ broadcasts news on music star as well as the music industry 24 hours daily.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The over exposure of third countries to foreign programmes has given risen to the following problem:-
1. The problem of cultural content affecting their behavioural life pattern.
2. The problem of programmes which are not in congruence with their culture attracting their attention.
3. Problem of preference of foreign programmes to their own locally produced ones.
4. The problem of acculturisation.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
One of the most topical issues experienced by third world countries in international communication is the level of influence foreign programmes have on their culture, foreign programmes are programmes broadcast in countries other than where they are produced. These programmes comes in form of news, documentary, drama, music and others.
In 1992, the Nigerian Broadcasting commission under the Federal Military Government promulgated decree No. 38 which has the following cultural objectives.
a. Seek, identify, preserve and promote Nigeria’s diverse culters.
b. Select critically, the positive aspects of foreign cultures for the purpose of enriching the Nigerian culture.
c. Develop and promote the application of indigenous aesthetic values.
d. Promote the development of a high level of intellectual and artistic creativity and
e. Foster generally acceptable moral, ennobling and spiritual values.
Recently, the Nigerian Broadcasting sector has become a dumping ground for foreign programmes. As Nwuneli 1986 notes.
“Some if not most of our popular radio stations today broadcast western type music for 15 out of their 18. hour day broadcast schedule. The remaining three hours are devoted to news. Nigerian to news, Nigerian and African type music. It is just as if Nigeria and Africa as a whole has nothing to offer in the way of music entertainment.
As a result of this intrusion of foreign programmes into the Nigerian Broadcasting stations, these cultural objectives are not met or accomplished, since no society can successfully diffuse all or most of its cultural patterns without some degree of domination. This is because these programmes are alien, designed and created according to the psychographics and demographics of audience in the countries where they are produced.
In view of this, citizen in the third world countries imitate these western values regardless of their cultural implications. Thus in Nigeria’s higher institution today, especially those in Enugu, it seems difficult to differentiate men from women. This is because of their mode of dressing, men are seen with plaited hair, earning and other feminine. Fashion modes which are abnormal in the African society. Recently, this anomaly has been attributed to the exposure of Nigerian citizens to foreign music channels such as ‘Channel O’.
Cultural influence of foreign programmes in broadcasting seeks to look at this anomaly among others and prefer possible solution to them.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research projects is relevant particularly when viewed against the backdrop of cultural implication of over assimilation of foreign programme through broadcasting.
The study calls for a re-awakening of our regulatory bodies such as the National Broadcasting commission (NBC) to re-asses and control the content of broadcast programmes on channels received by cable television firm in the country.
It will help broadcast stations perform the watch dog (surveillance) function of the mass media. Thus, it will accentuate the need for them to select and disseminate information that is in congruence with Nigeria culture.
It calls for the re-awakening and relevance of our local programmes in broadcasting.
Finally, it will go a long way to remind citizens of the third world like Nigeria especially Enugu the rich cultural heritage of their country.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This project makes concrete effort to proffer solutions to the following questions:-
1. What is the level at which viewers watch ‘Channel O’ daily, weekly or monthly?
2. What programmes or events appeal to users of ‘Channel O’?
3. Do the population under study prefer ‘Channel O’ programmes to their own locally produced ones?
4. Has exposure to ‘Channel O’ programmes any harmful effect on Nigerian culture?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ha1 Viewers prefer ‘Channel O’ programmes to locally produced ones like AIT, MBI etc.
Ho1 Viewers do not prefer ‘Channel O’ programmes to locally produced ones like AIT.
Ha2 ‘Channel O’ programmes have harmful effect on Nigerian culture.
Ho2 ‘Channel O’ programmes do not have harmful effect on Nigerian culture.
Ha3 Viewers like to imitate the things done on ‘Channel O’.
Ho3 Viewers do not like to imitate the things done on ‘Channel O’.
Ha4 People like watching Gospel music on ‘Channel O’.
H04 People do not like watching Gospel music on ‘Channel O’.
Ha6 People spend time/hours watching ‘Channel O’.
Ho6 People do not spend time/hours watching ‘Channel O’.
1.7 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
CULTURE: This is the way of life of a particular people.
CULTURAL: Adjective of culture.
CULTURAL INFLUENCE: This is the ability one culture has to affect or influence the way of life another people or culture other than their own.
THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES: It refers to the developing or undeveloped countries of the world. They are also called the South.
FOREIGN PROGRAMMES: These are programmes broadcast in countries other than where they are produced.
BROADCASTING:- In this context, it refers to the medium through which messages are sent out through the electromagnetic wave. These medium includes Radio and Television.
‘Channel O’: This is one of Mnet numerous channels. It broadcasts music videos and news on musicians 24 hours daily.
1.8 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is
1. To examine cultural content of these programmes and highlight how it affects Nigeria.
2. To find out the types and qualities of programmes that attract cultural attention.
3. To find out the extent of damage done on Nigerian culture.
Finally, the study attempts to offer suggestions and proper programmes that will bring about the upliftment of the country’s rich cultural values.
1.9 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study looks at the cultural influence of foreign programmes on third world countries. However, for convenience sake and some obvious difficulties, Enugu is used as a case study within a third world country, Nigeria.
The study is limited to the role of a single media (‘Channel O’, an all music station).
This research is also limited in a way that the researcher is able to reach a greater population within an area in Enugu which may be very significant in the realization of the objective of this study. In view of the above.
1.10 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
It is an undisputable fact that every research work is faced with limitation and this work is not left out.
The researcher was faced with the following limitations.
a. TIME- This is a major constraint to the research, in that the research has to contend with the academic work in school and an indept research on this work and this was very redious.
b. FINANCE – The money allocated for the work was not enough to produce all the materials required for this study. This also limited the researchers sample size.
c. ILLITERACY – The inability of respondents to understand the terms involved in the research work hindered the appreciation of the value of research findings by most people.
Federal Military Govt. (1992). Establishment of National Broadcasting Commission Decree 38, Federal Government.
Internet, http:/www.,mnet.co.2a/emc/emc-channel).asp. htte://www.,mnet.co.2a/emc/channel O@mnet.co.29.
Okunna, Amafile and Okenwa (1993): Theory and Practice of Mass Communication, Enugu. Abic Publishers. Pp 25, 28-32.
Onuora E. Nuwneli (1985): Mass Communication in Nigeria; A Book of Reading, Enugu. Fourth Dimension Publishers. P. 144.