MARKETING OF FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES IN ENUGU URBAN
This study has been carried out to access the marketing of family planning services in Nigeria using Enugu as a case study.
Family planning is the process of determining the number, three and spacing of childbirth in order to protect the health of mothers, children, and as well as minimize ill health and early death.
The research evaluated the effectiveness and efficient use of marketing communication tools in modifying couples attitude towards adoption of family planning concept. The study also investigated the extent of awareness created by parenthood federation Nigeria using marketing promo-tools as well as other socio-economic factors, which hinder the concept.
It went further to set out ways for both government and non-governmental organization to preach the message of family planning very well.
In the process of the research work some related materials were reviewed. These include, textbooks, handbill and journals on service marketing and family planning. This formed the secondary data for the study.
The primary data were collected through the use of questionnaire from respondents basically couples living together. They are the major consumers of the family planning services.
The data collected was presented, analyzed and interpreted as well testing the hypothesis. The data collected were tabulated into frequencies and percentages. Chi-square (x2) statistic was used to test the hypothesis.
It was found out that Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria has been able to create a considerable awareness through the use of marketing communication tools. Also it was discovered that other socio-economic factors such as cultural value and religious belief equally prevented adoption of the concept to some extent.
The research recommended massive education of the citizenry, establishment of mobile family planning unit in rural areas, integration of family planning as part of curricular, assistance from other social agencies. The study also suggests adequate government funding of the programme for effective and nation wide operation campaign
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Statement of Problem
Objective of the Study
Statement of Hypothesis
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
What is Family Planning?
Reasons for Family Planning
Various Methods of Family Planning
An Overview of Marketing Services
Characteristics of Services
Service Management in non-profit Organization.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Source of Data
Population of Data
Population of Study
Sample Size Determination
Method of Data Collection
Questionnaire Administration and Response Rate
Method of Data Presentation and Analysis
Limitation of the Study
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
Data Analysis and Interpretation.
Test of Hypothesis
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
Summaries of Findings
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is a pure economic fact that man cannot live by Gross National Product GNP only. The premise of the above statement is that GNP per see measures the affluence of a nation but not indication of wealth appropriation among the citizenry. It does not show the level of socio-economic welfare of the not does it represent the effect of the population or other factors on the economy of a nation.
Population can be a fountain of joy as well as source of agony and distress for a nation. It stands as a nation’s asset and equally constitutes its liability. A nation’s capability or inability to adequately plan for the growth of its population sometimes occasions this double standard and to what extent it is developed and properly utilized. However, in countries where the per capita income outstrips the rate of population growth, it becomes an asset to the nation in question such as Saudi Arabia and Holland. It’s quite unfortunate the most of the developing countries like Nigeria are all experimenting the reverse of the issue. By this we mean that their per capita income rate is far less than their population growth. According to modern economist, increased pressure on land, mass unemployment, problem of feeding millions, inadequate infrastructural facilities, low per capita income, poor standard of living, low life expectancy, child morbidity and high mortality rate are all indices of population explosion.
The above-mentioned phenomena have become so prevalent in Nigeria nation especially, the issue of child dumping, unwanted pregnancies leading to induced abortion and high maternal and duty morbidity and high mortality resulting from closely spaced pregnancies. All these attracted the attention of Miss Edith Late of the pathfinder fund in 1962, she paid visit to Nigeria and met with the National Council for Women Society. The outcome of their meting was to establish a Family Planning Committee, which will be responsible for family planning activities and marriage counseling. The Family Planning Committee later becomes Family Planning Council of Nigeria. In 1978, it was reorganized and re-named the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria (PPFN). It spreads throughout the states of the federation including the former Anambra State with its capital in Enugu.
The aim of this organization, amongst other are; to encourage the building up of healthy and happy families, encouraging the proper spacing of children among families with a view to protect the health of mothers and children and thus help to reduce ill health and early death. Also to educate men and women about the dangers of unwanted pregnancies and thus encourage child bearing by choice and not by chance. In order to accomplish these vital objectives, which give the society constraints, imposed by cultural superstition etc. The PPFN adopted the use of marketing promotion to create awareness targeted at changing or modifying the attitude of consumer (couples) towards embracing the concept of family planning services.
In the words of Edoga P. N, marketing of service refers to any activity, benefits or satisfaction that is offered for sale. It is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Its production may or may not be tied to its physical product like rendering of services by the Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For a long time now, the problem and concern for family planning on the radio, television, magazine and newspaper discussions are constantly and continually challenging the intellect.
This has drawn attention to the family planning concept being predicated that an unbridled population growth rate can constitute a great hindrance to a nation’s socio-economic development.
Moreover, the inadequacies in economic and social infrastructure, brought about, in our own case by the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) has made it absolutely imperative for families to have children by choice not by chance through effective family planning scheme, the body that has taken up the task of fulfilling this noble but enormous task is the planned parenthood federation of Nigeria (PPFN). For the actualization of its objectives, it employed the tools of marketing communication to arouse interest and consumer attitude and behaviour towards a possible acceptance of the concept.
· To find out if it has succeeded or failed is the base for this research work.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This work is to achieve or accomplish the following objectives;
a) To evaluate the extent of awareness created by PPFN about family planning services through the use of promotional tools.
b) To find out how effective and efficient marketing promotional tools are in modifying consumer’s attitude and behaviour towards adoption family pleasuring service concept.
c) To find out whether there are other social or economic factors that have made use of marketing communication tools in hanging consumer attitude toward family planning services ineffective and inefficient.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES
In the process of carrying out this research, the following hypothesis were put forward:
Hi: Marketing Communication has not been able to modify consumer behaviour/attitude towards family planning concept.
Hii: Cultural belief hinders the practice of family planning.
Hiii: Marketing communication by the PPFN has not been able to create awareness of family planning services.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The menace of maternal child morbidity and high mortality rate occasioned by lack of proper family planning which finds expression in two closely spaced pregnancies, has been major concerns to the developing nations of the world. Besides, population explosion has proved to be a service debilitating social and economic ill that deserves all the attention accorded to it.
The significance of the study therefore lies on the fact that the result will prove useful to governmental, philanthropic, public and private organization, concerned with family planning in pronouncing policies and programmes about family planning, which will in turn reduce morbidity and early mortality rate.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of study to this research has been limited within Enugu Urban for the sake of efficiency. It covers the examination of the various variable of marketing service taken cognizance of marketing promotion tools as used by PPFN in the bid to management the concept of family planning to their target audience, notably, married homes and measures the effectiveness of promotional tools in modifying the customer behaviour and attitude.
Some other factors responsible for consumer attitude formation and change such as culture, inter-personal communication learning, reference group and so on are equally examined.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
At this point it necessary to define some of the terms used in the cause of this research work. This is because of the usage of some words, which may mean different this to different categories of people. Therefore to reduce ambiguities or its elimination, we are going to look at the following terms:
Morbidity: this refers to unhealthy growth of children due to lack of proper family planning and malnutrition.
Mortality: By this, way mean early death rate brought about by poor family planning. Mortality rate as used in this context refers to the increasing level early child death normally called pre-mature death.
Consumer Behaviours: This refers to all activities or acts engaged by consumer in the process of satisfying his need or wants. It includes both overt and covert behaviors
Consumer Attitude: This is used interchangeably with consumer behaviour but the different is that attitude is an expressed behaviour, it is overt while behaviour embodies both overt and covert.
PROMOTION TOOLS:These are the marketing communication variables such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relation, and publicity as used by PPFN in bid to serve or convey the concept of family planning to their target audience, which is mainly, couples or married homes.