COMMUNICATION AND ITS PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (NIGERAI AS A CASE STUDY}
Communication has remained a formidable sector in the life wire of every society. For a meaningful life and co –existence in the society, proper use of communication techniques is very necessary.
This work was born as a result of concern the dwindling nature of communication in the developing countries, bedeviled by problems of both economy and technological set back as a result of which our communication system has remained a child of misfortune.
We commend this book, therefore to all communication students who are acquire skills and knowledge in the different higher institutions all over the country. To media owners, we hope that this research work will help to improve their livelihood which has been seriously threatened by these known and unknown problems. To those practicing communicators who are struggling day and night to improve and better their skills in the filed. We hope that a context with this book will help restore their lost hope and confidence
Table of contents
Approval page III
Statement of the existing problems 1
Importance of the study 9
Objective of the study 10
Literature review 13
Summary of literature review 39
Scope and limitations of study 41
Research Questions 42
Research Hypothesis 44
Research Analysis 46
Conclusion and Recommendations 52
When we considered the ever widening harizon between the third world communication order in which we have unfortunately found ourselves and the counterpart in the computer controlled worlds, (the developed countries).
We could not help feeling that sense of consciousness to brace up with the challenges caused by this imbalance, this feeling has today motivated us into embarking on this laudable project. A genuine and committed pursuit to the amelioration, if not outright solution to these seemingly unattainable problems that bed evil our young but promising third world communication order.
(1) STATEMENT OF THE EXISTING PROBLEMS
Communication is synonymous with understanding when communication does not end with proper decoding, it means that understanding has been lost understanding can be impaired by a number of factors, prominent among them is noise. Noise is any factor in the communication process that does not enhance the proper understating of the encoded message.
Noise is one of the most difficult problems that effect, both the print and broadcast media. In broadcast media it comes in form of hooting noise, poor grammatical expressions etc. While in the print, anything that tends to derail the readers mind from the proper understanding of the encoded message is noise. Noise could be in form of wrong spellings, wring usage of words as well as wrong punctuation’s .
In interpersonal communication, noise could come in the form of shabby dressing of the communicator, a handkerchief bulging from the pocket of the communicator, or bad make – up. When the encoded message is distorted as a result of noise, understanding will be adversely effected, the essential of such communication will therefor be defeated.
Another major problem that face communication in developing countries is language problems. For a communication process be seen as successful, the decoding must be an indication of proper understating. In country like Nigeria, there are about 250 ethnic groups and several language as well as dialects. Our use of English language is most times hampered by the intrusion of our local and sectional dialects.
Mr. Chudi Amafili and Mr. AL. Gwe seem to recognize this in their unpublished lecture material on radio and television production. They advice thus.” The announcers voice must be natural a universal voice, one not tied to any local or sectional dialects. It is only anaive mind who will not understand the extent of damage, this above mentioned factor can cause in our communication process. English language is not our mother tongue. It is our second language and therefore one whose usage is most likely to be affected by the underlying factors in our first language. The Yoruba’s for instance omit the letter “H” in the pronunciation of English words because of the restrictions in their language. The Hausas and the I bos are not free from this dialectic problem. This affect them both in pronunciation as well as pitch variations.
This language problem does not stop here, Mr. Mbaachu, the personnel manager to Nigeria coal co-operation Enugu in his unpublished paper argued that it is only when we are using our mother tongue for communication that we are at liberty even to the extent of inventing words, which according to him, is not the same when we use other people’s lnguage. According to him when one is involved in another person’s language on remains a learner and never an experts. No wonder them many communication experts advocate that local language media house should be established in the local areas to take care of majority of people in remote area. The next major problem, according to Mr. Mbaachu is the dynamic nature language both local care of majority of people in remote area. The next major problem, according to Mr. Mbaachu is the dynamic nature language both local and foreign. According to Mr. Okenwa, the former Head of department of mass communication, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, Conventional English demanded that one uses “ you are welcome “ as a response to an expression of thanks. This is not the same with what use to apply a couple of years ago another major problem that besieged communicators in the under developed countries like Nigeria, is lack of modern communication gadgets / equipment. Reginald Okochi, the press secretary to the Enugu State Government, in his address to the 1999. Association of mass communication students (ASMACS) IMT Chapter lamented his woes, when he was covering the presidency as a radio Nigeria reporter. He narrated the pains and frustrations they suffered when their counterparts in overseas, aided by their very sophisticated gadget, were able to punch their news to their studios, even from their presidential dateline, while he and his colloquies waited to fax their news at the nearest business centre. What a frustration ?
When one listens to telephone interview over the voice of America he will be forced to wonder there is nothing wrong with our local media house whose interviews and remote productions generally are riddled with noise and distortions and distortions. Our telecommunication system, station transmitters and even our studio equipment are so problem ridden, that they frustrate the efforts of our head working communicators.
Underdevelopment is indication of the poor state of economy of the country involved. It is another way of saying that a country is poor. Poverty is one of the greater set backs on the thirds world communication system. Its is almost foundation years now that the Nigeria broadcasting co-operating (NBC) issues licenses to private proprietors to establish and operate their own electronic media house, but till now only clappers broad, many system television and few other’s have been able to meet up the deadline not withstanding the further shift of the deadline. This situations can largely be attributed to the poor economic situation in the country.
Almost all our media, both government and privately owned ones are suffering from the problems posed by obsolete equipment. Radio stations such as Enugu state Broadcasting station collapses and ressurates at relatively short intervals. When Reginald Okochi was comforted with the question regarding the above mentioned station, during the 1999 ASMACS week he confessed that the problem has persisted because of lack of fund “bad economy” The last problem which is not the least among other problem is, the problem posed by the government and the law. The relationship between the press and the government has been described by many known communication scholars “an adversary relationship” the type of relationship that exist between the cat and rat.
A major problem exist between the two parties in the area of control of media of communication.
Another problems of which is not lesser than the first is in the area of disclosure of source of information especially when it is a pre –requisite to the discovery of the truth in the wittiness box. The journalist believe and hold tenaciously to the fact that they should be allowed to hold back their source from whom they received information in confidence. According to them, they can not serve two masters at a time, their conscience and their inquisitors. The journalist believe that an undertaking given a journalist not to miscue the information is a matter of conscience. In a lead judgement delivered in Austrian in an appeal court, the judge helds “ Interalia”.
“No” one doubts that editors and journalists are sometimes made the repositories of special confidence which from motives of interest as well as honour, they would preserve from public disclosure, but the law was faced at comparatively early stage of the growth of rules of evidence with the questions of how to resolve the conflicts between the necessary of discovering the truth in the other hand, he obligation of of secrecy or confidence, which an individual called upon to testify may in good faith have undertaken to a party or other persons”
The usefulness of this research study to mass communication students, can be seen in very many ways. This study will help these future communication problems. This work can be kept in the library for reference purpose. They will have access to read, comment and criticize it. Also this study will widen their knowledge, mass communicator already in the field, will benefit from this study too. When they read this work, it will improve their skills expose them, to know their past mistakes.
This work will help media proprietors, whose livelihood is seriously confronted by these numerous problems. For those who are not in mass communication but make use of communication in solving their daily problems. We hope that this work will be very useful to them in improving understanding and efficiency.
This sub- heading of the introductory chapter of the course of study “communication and it’s problems, indeveloping countries” is meant and designed to critically explain to the barest minimum of what activated both our physical and intellectual effort in embarking on this project.
Francis . J. Bergin, in this practical communication and in “communication pedagoguery by Dr . D.C Aniakor” they pointed out that it has been found out that the course of communication isinvestable as far as human existence is concerned. Communication is the soul of any relationship. They also confirmed that any relationship that lacks good communication network is definitely bound to be problematic contributed and converted a good number of areas of significance communication instance. The types of communication, communication channels, media of communication and several other.
This study as a matter of fact is deemed necessary to improve the standard of communication, as adequate and sound communication ensure health relationship between people, and thus improve some of human problem.
This study will focus attention on the area of language problems, problems encountered as result of inadequate communication equipment, devastating economy, neglect to traditional models of communication and others.
“Practical communications” by Francis. J. Bergine (Second edition) published in 1981 by Pitman Publishers.
Press Pedagogvery in Nigeria (1920 – 90s) by Dr. DC Aniako
Mr Amafili Chudi and Aligwe H.N” Unpublished works on radio and television production”.
Mr. Mbaachu, Nigeria cola co-operation ;An unpolished paper”
Mr. Nwaognuyama Emeka “An Unpublished materials on law and ethics.