INFLUENCE OF AFRICAN INDEPENDENT TELEVISION AS A WATCHDOG AGAINST CHILD ABUSE AND LABOUR WITH A PARTICULAR FOCUS TO CHILD TRAFFICHING
The aim of this study was to analyze the Influence of African Independent Television as a Watchdog against Child Abuse and labour with a particular focus to Child Trafficking. The study made use of survey research method. Subjects were drawn from Gariki using the purposive sampling technique. The study answered four research questions. From the research findings, it was observed that the programmes aired on AIT helped in discouraging the practice of Child Abuse and Labour. The study recommended that the government should embark on public enlightenment programmes to educate the public on the social dangers of child abuse and labour, as well as child trafficking.
1.1 Background of the Study
Child abuse and labour represents one of the most dehumanizing forms of human rights abuse. Top on the hat of the slavery-like practices against children is child trafficking. Combating child trafficking has gathered considerable momentum over the years with increased political awareness regarding the phenomenon, as illustrated by the localized adoption and ratification of international standards and important commitments undertaken in international conference by different states.
In 2002, the African union reaffirmed its commitment to combat child trafficking. It identified the elimination of human trafficking as an operational priority. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), in 2001 developed strategies to fight child trafficking for exploitative labour purposes in West and Central Africa. In Africa, the first commitment to combat trafficking is exemplified in Africa charter on the right or welfare of the child (1990).
In the United Nations (UN) protocol to prevent, suppress or punish trafficking in person especially women and children. The United Nations convention against transitional organized crime called Palermo protocols, defines human trafficking to mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring as receipt of persons by means of threat, or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, abuse of power or of a position of benefit, vulnerability, of the giving or receiving of payment to receive the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation. (Arinze, 2006).
In order to mobilize effective efforts, political will and policy responses to prevent or combat child trafficking, the international community reached a common consensus on a common normative definition or trafficking in human beings which include various form of sexual exploitation or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or removal of organs. The focus of the provision stresses that trafficking for exploitative purposes should be considered a crime and must be prosecuted. It‟s also stressed that national laws should be reviewed to ensure compliance through legislative process the protocol as a model.
Prior to the time, the scale of child trafficking had been hard to determine as a result of complete unavailability of databases on child trafficking or traffickers and above all the shameful delay in the adoption and enactment of the child‟s rights law by state in the country.
According to Arinze(206):
The activities of some non-governmental organizations like women or child labour eradication. Women trafficking and child labour eradication foundation (WOTCLEF) and India Renaissance brought the issue of human trafficking especially child labour to the national discourse-and made the wife of the former vice president Mrs. Titi Abubaeke to initiate or bill to the national assembly in person. This action was followed by the establishment of National Agency for the prohibition trafficking in persons and other related matters. The agency is to enforce the laws against trafficking in persons, investigate or prosecute persons suspected to engage in trafficking in persons or take change or coordinate the rehabilitation of victims of human trafficking.
Child trafficking takes place in most parts of the world. In Nigeria, the United Nations International Children‟s Emergency fund (UNICEF) has identified 13 human trafficking endemic states which include Edo, Ondo, Ebonyi, Imo, Rivers, Enugu, Ogun, Kano, Cross River, Akwa-Ibom or Delta States. Research has shown that child trafficking has become an intra cross boarder and trans-national crime. Testimonies of victims of trafficking have shown that various techniques are used by traffickers to trick children and their parents. Research has also shown that there is a very powerful and highly organized network that is reaping substantial profits from exploiting the convenience of international communication weakness of penal system and vulnerability of parents and children.
African Independent Television, also known by its acronym AIT was pioneered by high chief, Dr. Raymond Dokpesi, is a Nigerian satellite television station, a subsidiary of Da‟ar communication plc, it was founded December 1996. AIT is the second largest commercial television network in Africa, broadcasting the most talked about television and marking a major contribution to African‟s culture, economy, and communities. Its programming mix includes the more on top entertainment, soaps, drama, lifestyles, news and sport shows.
AIT channel 21 and AIT international share the same vision and a similar mission. AIT has a unique mission that of sharing the African experience with the wider global community. AIT‟s main task is to project Africa from a holistic African prospective.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Today in west and central Africa, it is acknowledged that agricultural fields, gold and diamond mines, stone quarries and domestic work are areas where the working conditions of children are often exploitative. Furthermore, changes in old cultural practices such as fostering, handing over a child to a third party have been corrupted and abused. In recognition of the challenges, child abuse pose to the atonement of human rights, security and sustainable development and achievement of millemium development goals, the question this study seeks to answer is; how has African Independent Television (AIT) Influenced the discouragement of child abuse and labour with particular focus on child trafficking in Gariki of Abuja metropolis.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The study has the following objectives, they are:
1. To find out the kind of programmes relating to child abuse and labour aired on African independent television.
2. To find out how popular these programmes are with the residents Gariki of Abuja metropolis.
3. To find out the reactions of the Gariki residents of Abuja metropolis to these programmes.
4. To find out how the programmes have helped in discouraging the practice of child abuse and labour among the residents of Abuja metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
The study answered the following research questions
1. What kind of programmes relating to child abuse and labour are aired on Africa Independent television against child and labour?
2. How popular are these programmes to the residents of Abuja metropolis?
3. What are the reactions of the residents Gariki of Abuja metropolis to these programmes?
4 In what way have these programmes helped in discouraging the practice of child abuse and labour among the residents of Abuja metropolis?
1.5 Scope of the study
The purpose of this study is to look at the influence of Africa independent television as a watchdog against child abuse and labour with particular reference to child human trafficking. This study is limited to the residents Gariki of Abuja metropolis.
1.6 Significance of the study
This study would serve as a reference material for both the students and researchers who may have their study in line with the study‟s area of research.
The study will also be a useful guide for mass media organizations like the print and other broadcast institutions in planning to educate the public on the consequences of child abuse and labour.
1.7 Operational definitions of terms
Child Abuse: It is an act which constitutes all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship or responsibility, trust or power.
Child Labour: It is the employment of children in any work that deprives them or that may interfere with their education or endanger their health.
Child trafficking: trafficking is a modern form of slavery that involves displacing a child for the purpose of exploitation. It is also the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring and or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation
Mass Media: The mass media are communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Example, television, radio, newspapers, and magazines.
Child Trafficking: Child trafficking is a modern form of slavery that involves displacing a child for the purpose of exploitation. It is also the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring and or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation.