Public Perception Of The Influence Of Social Media In The Fight Against Corruption In Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

The study, examine public perception of social media contribution in the fight against corruption, the Idealistic theory, was  used in this research study, as different philosophies  of  scholars review ,is noted to make this research concrete , observed to examine , the public perception ,in Corruption, as news information is being neglected .  the magic bullet theory, creates a strong effect in the media influence .The social media, has played an effective role ,in disseminating and evaluating problems to fight corruption, as the  messages is sent ,through digitization, blogging, tweeting ,etc  enable the masses, have freedom of expression, at the comfort of each and everyone, pace. Therefore; enhancing the brand of messages, disseminated  using the Old and New Media, very effective .The qualitative methodology, is hereby inflicted in the study, with the aid of a secondary data collection(internet materials, journal articles, newspaper reports and books) to obtain in-depth information and concept clarification so as to facilitate the survey .

The study indicates,  the Masses play’s significant roles ,in curbing corruption as the perception of the audience matters towards the fight against neglect of News information ,as a result of Entertainment ,which has therefore affect the lifestyle of Individuals, in the Society .

The criticism of the Public towards News  ,through opinions, determines the Evaluations towards problems solving, in the society .hereby creating room for the government, tackle the issues of Inadequate governance  , excess government and maintain a mutual understanding between the Government organization and the Public .Therefore, through Adequate censorship , information articles should be made catchy, interest its audience ,must be from a reliable source  ,and revolve around finding solutions to solving problems in Nigeria.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Acknowledgement      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Tables of Contents      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           v

List of Tables  -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

Abstract          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vii       

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem -     -           -           -           4

1.3       Objective of the Study           -           -           -           -           -           -           - 5       

1.4       Research Questions -  -           -           -           -           -           -           - 5       

1.5       Scope of Study -         -           -           -           -           -           -           6

1.6       Significance of Study -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -6        

1.7       Operational definition of Terms         -           -           -           -           -           -           -7         -          

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       History of Social Media          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           9

2.1.2    The Concept of Corruption     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.1.3    Influence of Social Media      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           13

2.1.4    Impact of Social Media          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           14

2.1.5    Forms of social media             -           -           -           -           -           -           15

2.1.6    Communication in the age of social media                 -           -           -           -           16

2.1.7   Modern social media    -           -           -           -          18

2.2     Empirical Review          -           -           -           -           -           - 20

2.3    Theoretical Framework              -           -           -           -           -           -56

2.4   Summary of Literature    -           -           -           -           -           - 56

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN

3.1      Research Design          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           57

3.2      Area of Study                 -        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           57

3.3      Population of study     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -57

3.4      Sampling technique          -      -           -           -           -           -           -           -57

3.5      Sample Size     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           - 58

3.6      Instrument of Data collection     -        -           -           -           -           -           -           58

3.7      Validity of Instrument      -      -           -           -           -           -           -           -58

3.8      Reliability of Instrument     -   -           -           -           -           -           -           -58

3.9     Method of Administering Instrument     -        -           -           -           -           -           58

3.4     Method of Data Analysis         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           58

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION

4.1       Questionnaire Distribution and Collection     -           -           -           -           -           59

4.2       Discussion of findings   -        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           63

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary         -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           65

5.2       Conclusion      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           66

5.3       Recommendations -    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           66

Reference        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           67

APPENDIX    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           73

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1        Distribution of Returned and Unreturned Questionnaires

among staff                 -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

Table 4.1.2      Age distribution of respondents         -           -           -           -           -          

Table 4.1.3      Gender Distribution    -           -           -           -           -           -           -          

Table 4.1.4      Marital Status Distribution     -           -           -           -           -           -                      

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

    1. Background to the Study

Chillieh, (2013), depict the social Phenomenon known as public perception,  can be seen, in the difference between an absolute truth based on facts and virtual truth shaped by the popular opinion, media coverage or reputation.

 Expat (2013), evaluate  in Modern society ,the media is part of the solution to the problem of “How to fight corruption.” There is no justice ,if people  can’t see what is happening .Media fulfill the first act of justice in any society –They can help us see what is happening ,as a tool for social justice ,it is not bound by academic or policy definition of corruption .Like the “the man on the street” we find out the media uses much more general understanding of corruption ,that may be more useful for corruption fighters .when we look beyond academic or international donor definitions, we find that the older use of the term still applies .People consider corruption ,to include anything  that contribute to the decay of the society. Regardless of the formal criminality of the act ,someone is doing what they should not be doing .

Media can provide awareness of the negative impact on society and is one of the most fundamental parts of an anticorruption strategy for society. Sometimes journalist ,editors and publishers lose their role as a voice to inspire positive change .they lose sight  of the idea  that  positive change is possible and fall into the lowest level of journalism whereby they merely try to create any emotional reaction in the reader .

Fischhoff (1993), examined the standard method for learning public values which include contingent valuation and utility elicitation .The first involves posing questions about willingness to pay, either to avoid having some condition occur or to make it go away, once  it has occurred. This involves asking questions about the importance that the respondent attaches to various valued attributes so as to be able to construct a normative model of choice among outcomes, that involves  different levels of the valued attributes .Both of this approaches suffer from the difficulties that they assume that people have well-articulated values on the question of interest and the problem is simply one of measuring those values .

Schultze (2009), emphasized social media as the collection of tools and Online space ,available to help individual  and business to accelerate their Information and Communications needs .The corruption ,in Nigeria context has been  a nagging issue ,the phenomenon has defied any known definition .It is recalcitrant’s as the character  ‘abiku’ which keep reincarnating .Corruption has also defied every effort by successive government, to put it at bay.  Carrying in sourcing News items, this has created a Broadway fight against corruption thereby creating room for the public to freely, disseminate opinion, using the social media, On an Event  .There’re two Mode of media ,they Include the Old Media(Radio and Television)  and The New media (The Social media  ) .the  purpose of the creation of the New media, which, is also referred to as the Internet base medium of communication ,in other to share opinion on the Internet , to a subject been discussed  at the comfort of their homes, creating opinion to a cause of event ,been discussed . sight the example of  Howpublic funds vanishes at jamb Office ,by a Snake .  creating a shake on the social media, as diverse thoughts and Idea’s were made by  public opinion of the  masses, in other to be heard ,by the public government in the society. with the Invention of the New Media  ( Face book, Twitter, Badoo, Pintrest ) ,everyone, in the public, Is considered a source of News ,using the mass media .

University of Oslo(2018), emphasizes while the Internet was initially used for contact with strangers, it has later become a platform where people develop and cultivate their already existing relationships. while most of the initial research in this field concluded with Internet mostly having negative impacts on social life and well-being, more recent research focusing on social networking sites like Facebook and Instagram find that users of such sites have increased social capital, social support, sense of community and improved well-being.Therefore ; the conventional, Mode of communication has helped , in the effective communications, as Nigerian’s from the rural and Urban Part ,of Nigeria easily gain connected through a broadband Internet , throughbeing watch-dog and Nosey for News Event Post. such news event on social media  get Opinion, Known as  feedback, to the government ,through comments using the New mode of communication  ,which creates Impact towards evaluation of problems in Nigeria.

Shakespare(1900), describe the emergence of public opinion as a significant force, in the political realm ,whereby Opinion has been regarded as having singular importance since far Medieval  Fama publican or Vox et Fama Communis ,from great legal and social Importance from the (12th) and (13th) century onward .William Shakespeare called Public Opinion “the mistress of success”.One of an Institution of central Importance. In the development of public opinion ,was the coffee-House ,London .In the (17th) century ,as charlse ii , tried to suppress, the London coffee House ,as places where the disaffected met ,and spread Scandalous report ,concerning conduct of the majesty and mistress ,whereby the public flock to them. The Coffee-houses were great social Levellers ,open to all and indifferent to social status, as a result associated with equality and republicanism.

Binkley (1928), Examine public opinion is deep rooted .it is found, in all field of social thought. it perplexes Sociologist, Political theorist and Historians , would be rash indeed whom, should presume to present any solution to the entire problem , it may serve some useful, purpose to  bring  together in their relation to each other various concept  of public opinion and send forth similarities and differences on the strictly theoretical level. the problem, is a matter of combining two terms, here is one entity, an “opinion” .here is another ,a “public”. How can such a thing as a public be conceived as Entertaining such a thing as an Opinion ?

Nathan Conference (1924), point out, the difficulties of defining public opinion ,were ably set forth.Some members of the round table believed that ,there is no such  thing, as public opinion ,other ability to define it with sufficient precision for scientific purposes ,others gain more sanguine or perhaps more credulous ,believing  that the term could be define ,but were of different minds concerning the kind of definition that could be adopted. In other , to reconcile this difference ,it was decided first to consider the nature of opinion ,in general in the hope that a common understanding of the meaning ,of public opinion would emerge from the discussion ,it was decided that ,the essential point in the definition of opinion could be narrowed to three structures :

*Opinion need not be the result of rational process                                                     

*It need not include awareness of choice

*It must be sufficiently; clear or definite to create a disposition to act upon it, under favorable circumstances.

Nwokefor (2016), Asked Does Public Opinion Matter ? In response, he argued that; members of congress care about polls and press  ,indicate that the public will, is relevant to their daily activities. Yes, of course ,they are answerable In an election eventually ,but politicians care about public support between election too. For Example: One of the major reasons that Clinton was not removed from office after being Impeached was the “Public will” which was against his removal. If Clinton were not popular (which means, if he did not follow the public will on most major issues), his chance of surviving a senate state, would have been very low. Nixon knew that and resigned rather than face impeachment and removal from office, because the  “public will” agreed that he should go. Politicians read the newspaper and know what the public thinks-they hire staff for that purpose . they conduct polls to further influence their decisions. When they read the public will wrong , the press and letters from constituents ,let them know  in no uncertain terms. That the basic mechanism for how public will , becomes public policy. Yes, politicians can take a “Principled Stance “against the public will-sometimes the public accept that ,sometimes not. But the politicians know that they are going against the majority opinion in those cases, and go to great length to justify it—such as by calling it “Principled .An opinion poll, simply referred to as a poll, survey of public opinion from a particular sample. Opinion polls are usually designed to represent the Opinion of a population by conducting series of questions and then extrapolating generally in ratio or within confidence Intervals.

Aim:

The main objective of the study is to give a better understand of the  roleSocial media ,play in the fight against public neglecting News Information ,which has been a paramount issue,  towards  Evaluating problems ,in Nigeria . The social media  has played a vital role in stretching the perception of the masses towards, the daily happening in Nigeria . This    brand the Public attitude, Thoughts and perception, towards News Information .

1.2   Statement of the Problem

The social media exist to service the information needs of the society. but at the same time, the noted problem is that most Information’s are not from a reliable source, or is  not credible . Inline with the social responsibility role of the press. Onabajo (2002) argued that most discussions we hold today originate their topics from broadcast media. Most social media subscribers neglect Stories Happening in the country and are more concerned with entertainment ,This has made Cultural Imperialism affect ,the Nation ,as the use of smart phone ,affect   the perception ,on the way, we think ,act and Behave in our respective Lifestyle ,in  Nigeria .

Indicating that many people , read and watch news they do not trust. Because News      Information, is gotten from mistrust Individuals, due to that fact anyone, can disseminate news Information, at any point In time.  Since reported levels of trust in media, are relatively low it is obvious that some people will watch news they say they do not trust while trying to filter out information,therefore they are considered biased or untrustworthy.

The study has been able to evaluate public perception of the influence , the social media impact ,on the public, with the aim of fighting corruption,  connecting different people in the society as diverse thoughts is been disseminated through the media ,with the aid of Internet, for communication .

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objective of this study is to examine the following:

1. Ascertain public perception of social media contribution in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.

2.  Examine the extent, literacy level, social media has contributed to fight against corruption  in    Nigeria .

3. Identify the challenges hindering online  users ,over the use of  Facebook .

1.4 Research Questions

1. What is the public perception of social media contribution in the fight against corruption in Nigeria?

2.What extent ,literacy level social  has  social media contributed to fight against corruption in Nigeria?

3. What are the challenges online users have, over the use of facebook ?

1.5  Scope of Study

Therefore ,this study focused on Enugu-North metropolises,  to examine the perceptionof the public on the influence, the social media  have, in the fighting corruption in Nigeria.The study makes Nigerian’s focus more on being Nosey and watch for news stories, without neglecting news. as the social media, serves as  medium of source of Information towards the government in Evaluation process. this aim at , what is happening In the society.

1.6  Significance of Study

The study is of eminence benefit in regulating, the Use of social Media and the Mode of new Age communication, in regularizing the use of social media and its effect on the Masses. How ,it serve as  a weapon to the Audience ,towards combating against corruption ,as there is freedom of  expression in the public, towards disseminating information , within and outside the Country ,using the Social Media.

1.7 Operational definition of terms

1. Corruption: dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery. the process by which a word or expression is changed from its original state to one regarded as erroneous or debased.

2. Social Media : websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. Computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.(facebook, twitter , Instagram, whatsapp).      

3. Influence: the capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself. to cause someone to change a behavior, belief, or opinion, or to cause something to be changed: Businesses make large contributions to members of Congress, hoping to influence their votes on key issues.

4. Public: concerning the people as a whole, done, perceived, or existing in open view, of or provided by the state rather than an index.

5. Perception : the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted.

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