The Effects Of Media Programme On Rural Development (a Case Study Of Esbs, Nu Oha Programme

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          This study is aimed at critically examining the effects mass media on rural development. The work also includes the origin of the programme, literature review, statement of the research problem. The hypothesis and the research methodology of the study, equally included are the data analysis, data interpretation, results, discussion as well as bibliography.

            The research problems is “The effectiveness of ESBS (ratio rural Enlightment programme “ONU OHA”

          The result of the study shows that the programme “ONU OHA” is very useful considering the listener ship and the effectiveness of the message.


Title page




Table of contents




Background of the study

Statement of research problem

Objectives of the study

Significance of the study

Research questions

Research and null hypothesis

Conceptual and operational definition conceptual definitions


Limitation of the study



Review of literature

Sources of literature.

The review

Summary of literature



Research method

Research design

Research sample

Measuring instrument

Data collection

Data analysis

Expected results



Data analysis and result






Summary and recommendation









          For government to articulate sound policies without reaching the target is a tragedy as irredeemable as the ideal man who swallows all his thoughts.

          In this regards, successive governments in Enugu state through Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) continually grape through multitude programme, through endless permutations of strategies to fathon human predicaments and redeem man from such chaos and disorder. The process spawns what planners call “Programmes” project and target in government administrative parlance, as the linkage factor between policy articulation and its implementation the crisis point in this beautifully linkage is the target were as objectives manifesting on the ground, or as end users of the policy objectives.

          The ability to convince and persuade has also been institutionalized in some of the media programme such as “ONU OHA” ab ESBS audio programme. The programme “ONU OHA” which is composed to enlighten the rural dwellers on what is going on in the government of Enugu State. Is a production in Igbo unit of the ESBS radi Enugu. The programme, which lasts for 15 minutes is started this year and aired once in a week (on Sunday).

          It establishes a direct contact with the  listening audience of Enugu State and makes them to know what is happening in the government and then air their own views/ contribution through planning the programmes seeks to create awareness on the people of Enugu state about the important of rural development through collective and individuals contribution of ideas of the rural people.

          On the effectiveness of this programme, the producer, Chukwuma Ogbonna told us that the programme has been achieving its objectives. This according to the producer is ascertained through the acknowledgement letters gotten from the rural dwellers. According to Dr. Frank Ogboaja. One would not loose sight of the low literacy rate in our society, a factor capable of impeding the understanding and the interpretation of mass media messages.

          Thus in trying to bridge the knowledge gap in the communication of development issues. Nigeria mass media have resorted to increasing use for this vernacular language. The use of ESBS Radio for this programe has become necessary considering the mass local audience covered and the fact that out of the whole mass media of communication available, radio is the most accessible to the people of Enugu state especially Nsukka Zone.

          Being an Igbo programme, it will go a long way to help the people in comprehending the purpose and need for rural dwellers participation in formulating the policies of Enugu state government

          According to Lazardfeld and co:

          “Many are alarmed by the ubiquity and the potential power of mass media especially radio, comprise a powerful instrument which may be used for good.”

In this research therefore, we would critically look for and possibly find out whether ESBS rural development programme ONU OHA” actually has any impact on the people of Nsukka zone, nay the society.



          The research problem, which we want to find out is the effectiveness of ESBS (radio) enlightment or development programme “ONU OHA” on development effort of people in rural areas. This research topic is deemed a problem because it is argued variously to stimulate rural dwellers to embark on rural development by sending their ideas to the government of Enugu state.



          The objectives of this study is to critically examine or analyze the effects of mass media programmes on rural developments, we are primarily attractive to this problem because of the much emphasis being laid both by government, groups and individuals in enlightening the rural dwellers on what is going on in the government for the purpose of government helping in their development.

          Series of effort will be made to find out from the selected subjects the extent of attention they pay to various media house. The things will accomplished by going to the subjects and ascertaining on how far they listen to radio and television broadcasting in Enugu broadcasting service (ESBS). No defined agreement among communication experts on the reaction towards the mass media message. If this is the case, with what degree of certainty  can it be said that the attitude of the target audience will considerably come as a result of media message influence.

          Bernad Berelson, for instance believes that “some kinds of communication and various people under certain conditions have some kinds of effects”

          Besides, Curran et al said that mass communication does not ordinarily serves as a necessary and sufficient cause audience effects but  rather functions through a connections and series of mediating factors:

          Invariably, what their postulations indicated is that the influence of the media message is fundamentally relative. We hope that the findings of this research would be of immense help to future researcher in related areas. The result of this study would go a long ay in convincing people that the mass media are capable of affecting an appreciable change on people, it would also be of great advantage to the government to access the effectiveness of the programme realizing its objectives on rural development.

          Moreover, the result of this research would be of enormous value to the media authority to improve on the programme or in sustaining iy if not dropping it entirely.


          The information for this study will be obtained from the subjects in the rural areas which will complete copies of questionnaires in addition to being interviewed. The subjects will be systematically and randomly selected from rural populace.

          Since the inception of ESBS radio programme “ONU OHA” there has not been any in-depth study to ascertain its effectiveness in terms of achieving objectives for which it was meant. Thus this study will go a long way insetting the pace for any researcher who would wish to carry out a study in area of radio and its usefulness in the process of enlightment.



1.     Do people in Nsukka zone find ESBS Igbo programme “ONU OHA” useful for expressing their views to the government.

2.     Do the listeners in Nsukka zone find the time of the broadcast of “ONUOHA” suitable

3.     Do the people in Nsukka zone often listen to ESBS (radio) programme “ONU OHA”.

4.     Do the people in Nzukka zone listen to the programme because they are being rewarded by the government?



H.               Rural dwellers in Nssukka zone find ESBS (radio) programme “ONU OHA” useful in seeking development from the government.

H0.    Rural dwellers in Nsukka zone do not find ESBS (radio) programme “ONU OHA” useful in seeking development from the government.

H2.     Listeners in Nsukka zone find the time of broadcast of “ONU OHA” suitable.

H0.   Listeners in Nsukka zone do not find the time of broadcast of “ONU OHA” suitable.

H3.  Listeners in Nsukka zone find the programme enjoyable.

H0.  Listeners in Nsukka zone do not find the programme enjoyable.



LISTENERSHIP:- The act of paying attention to a given broadcast programme.

USEFULNESS:- Means ability to help or produce good results.

BROADCAST TIME:- It is the time or hour of the day during which an event occurs.

SUITABILITY:- Right for the purpose or occasion.

EFFECT:- Result or outcome

PROGRAMME:- List of items or results.

RURAL DEVELOPMENT:- Any kind of effort by people or interested groups to bring change in the countryside.



LISTENERSHIP:- The number of times that inhabitants of Nsukka zone pay attention to ESBS (radio) programme “ONA OHA”.

USEFULNESS:- Total score or desirability or importance attached to ESBS (radio) programme “ONU OHA”.

BROADCAST TIME:- Total number of times that the ESBS programme is on air.

SUITABILITY:- Mean scope of responses to the airtime.

EFFECT:- The average score of programme influence on people

PROGRAMME:The ESBS development programme “ONU OHA”

RURAL DEVELOPMENT: The total score of actions from the government to the rural dwellers.    



          As usual with a study of this nature, we hereby make the following assumptions:

          With advancement of technology in the field of mass communication, there tends to be growing awareness among societies, therefore there is a general belief that people perceptions and understanding of media message are considerably high. It was also an assumption that people attach importance to message from the media especially radio. So, transmission of enlightment programmes through radio on a regular basis has chances of making impact on its audience.

          It is also assumed that most rural dwellers in Enugu state speak and hear Igbo language in which the ESBS radio programme “ONU OHA” is produced.



          The major limitation to this study was with respect to the population and sample size the study is restricted in Nsukka senatorial zone. Since there are typical dominantly most areas in Enugu state are rural in nature, the result of this study would be sufficient.

          Another limitation of the study is the time range of the research which is very short for us to carry out the research work and finally financial problem.


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