PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAD USING FLOUR BIENDS OF WHEAT (Triticum Asetivum) AND CASSSAVA (Mannihot Esculenta) FLOUR FLAVOURED WITH GINGER (Zigiber Officinale)
The research work was carried out to produce and evaluate bread made with wheat (Triticum eastivium) and cassava flour (Mannihot esculenta) flavoured ginger. (zigiber officinale) The flour samples were blended into ratio of 90:10,80:20,10:30,60:40,50:50,for sample WCA,WCB, WCC,WCD,WCE WCF, respectively. Sample WW containing 100% wheat served as the control. The cassava roots were processed into flour using modified Dziedzoave et al, 2003 method. The fresh cassava roots purchased were peeled, washed, soaked for 12hours, grated, pressed and dried in the oven at 50oC for 6hour. Then, it was milled, sieved to obtain cassava flour of uniform particle size. The bread samples were produced using modified Igbabul et al 2014. The raw materials were measured and prepared, mixed, kneaded, weighed, moulded, panned and afterwards proofed at 32oC for 90minutes, baked at 180oC for 45minutes, cooled and packaged. Proximate analyses were carried out on both raw materials and bread samples. The functional properties of the blends were determined. Then, the physicochemical properties and the sensory evaluation were also carried out. The result of the proximate analyses showed that the ash content, fibre content and carbohydrate content increased with increase in cassava flour substitution in concurrence with the proximate composition of the raw materials. The ash content ranged from 0.71%-1.10%, the fibre content ranged from 1.15% 1.43%, the carbohydrate ranged from 41.96%-56.89%. The fat, protein and moisture content of the bread samples decreased with an increase in cassava flour substitution. The result of the functional properties increased with an increase in cassava flour substitution, the water absorption capacity ranged from 1.00ml/g-1.70ml/g oil absorption capacity ranged from 0.89ml/g -1.47ml/g, Bulk density ranged from o.68g/ml 0.79g/ml, dispersibility ranged from 76.10ml -79.70ml. The result of the physicochemical properties of the bread samples decrease with an increase in cassava flour substitution. The sensory evaluation showed that bread sample WCA and WCB compared favorably with control WW in texture, taste, mouthfeel, colour and general acceptability.
The raw materials used for the seminar work were purchased from Ogbete market, Enugu. They include wheat flour, salt, fat, sugar, improver, water, yeast, improver, ginger extract. The cassava roots used were obtained from Orie-agu market, Udi, Enugu.
Kneading table, Rolling pin, milling machine, Oven, weighing balance, grater, baking pan, knife, bowl, measuring cylinder, soxhlet apparatus, centrifuge, spatula, desicator, conical flask, fume cupboard, volumetric flask, crucibles, muffle furnace, petridishes, pipette, beaker.