SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL AND MANAGEMENT IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
Solid waste disposal and management in Enugu metropolis, is inefficient and unstainable due to the crude and unscientific method employed. The main practices, process and program of waste management in the state do not in any way conform to what is obtainable in other modern cities of world. It examine that the Solid waste management system in Enugu state is unscientific, unstainable at prerogative of people in power. It was discovered that the current waste management system has no room for waste recycling, re-use and repair. There was also no provision for waste segregation and reduction at source technology. Majority of the waste is dumped at open Land till. The study also analyzed the newly proposed solid waste management system in the state and found that the proposed system will be better than existing one if efficiently implemented.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - i
Abstract - - - - - - - iii
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - 1
2.0 Sources and types of solid waste - - 14
2.1 Method of solid waste disposal and management in Enugu metropolis - - - 17
2.2 Economic profile - - - - - 18
2.3 Population structure and distribution - 20
3.0Reduction of waste generation- - - 22
3.1 Benefit of solid waste recycling - -
3.1 Uses of solid waste - - - - - 31
4.0 Conclusion and Recommendation - - 33
References - - - - - - - 36
Solid waste means any garbage or refuse; sludge from a waste water treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, semi-solid result from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operation, and from community activities.
Solid waste disposal and management in Enugu metropolis refers to the collection, transfer, treatment, recycling recourse recovering, and disposal of solid waste in Enugu (Alabastor, 1995). The main purpose of solid waste disposal and management in Enugu metropolis is to protect the health of the urban population, particularly those of low income group from poor waste management. The aim is to promote healthy environmental condition by controlling pollution including waste, air solid and cross-media population and ensuring sustainability of ecosystem in the urban region. Another one is to supports urban economic development by providing waste management services and ensuring the efficient use and consecration of valuable materials and resources finally to generate employment and income itself (Alabastor, 1995).
Solid waste disposal and management in Enugu metropolis is necessary to establish sustainable system which meet the need of the entire urban population. The essential condition implies that waste management must be absorbed and managed by the society and its local communities (Diapi 1995).
Sustainable solid waste management should be approached from the perspective of the entire cycle of material which includes production, distribution and consumption of collection and disposal. Whilst immediate priority must be given to effective waste collection and disposal, waste recycling should also be pursed as equally important long term objectives.
The principles of solid waste management are:
i. To reduce waste generation,
ii. To reduce waste value by recycling, repair and reuse and to ensure safe and environmental sound disposal of waste. It depend on the overall effectiveness and efficiency of urban management and the capacity of responsible authorities. Generally, economic effectiveness of waste collection and disposal depends on one hand and services to other hand, on the long term economic impact of waste management system.
According to medina (2002), improper handling and disposal of solid waste has contributed to the high level of mortality witnessed in most urban cities in developing countries. In addition, urban cities in developing countries face challenges in solid waste management. More often than not, solid waste disposal and management stand as a ecology of human environment which has both short and long term effect on environmental development (Jain,1994).
In development countries, the waste is heavier and more corrosive than that of developed nations. Again in most developing countries local government spend 20-50% of their revenue on collection and balance on disposal but can only collect and dispose 50-70% of the solid waste (Ogwueleka 2003).
The problem associated with solid waste disposal and management are more than in the developing countries (Zerbock,2003).
Lack of financial resource and infrastructure to deal with solid waste disposal creates a vicious cycle. Lack of resource leads to low quality of service provision which lead to fewer people with to pay for service, which in turn further evodes the resource base and so on (Kuniyal et al., 1998).
The problem is further complicated by the rapid growth in population and urbanization, which has influenced an increase in the volume of waste being generated and also on waste disposal service in urban areas. However, more often than not, an increase in population is not matched with an equal increase in service and revenue for the local waste management (Zerbock, 2003).
According to Ezema (2009). Waste are useless, unwanted and discarded materials. Douglas (2004) corroborates Ezemas stance and argues that “waste is material which arises from animal and human life and activities discarded as useless and unwanted items. In the same vein, number 16 of Lagos state Environmental sanitation law of 1984 defines, domestic waste refuses as any substance which constitute material and other unwanted substance arising from application process. While the United States defines solid waste as any useless unwanted material with insufficient liquid content to be free flowing. The need for healthy environment is important to everybody. It may differ from place to place not in the fundamentals but in complexity (Laoye,1979).
Solid waste can also be referred to waste from household, general services, and agricultural activities. This also includes non-hazardous non liquid waste from institutions and industries (RA 9003).
Generally more waste generate per capita but the factor seem to bridge the gap between waste generation and its resultant effect is the method waste management strategy adopted by the country. A typical example could be seen when comparing the waste situation in developed countries like: Britain, united state of American and Canada where economic activities generate more waste with a corresponding well organized waste management system. It is realized that the waste situation in develop countries are much better than that of the developing countries due to the waste management strategy employ.
It could be defined as the discipline associated with the control of generation storage, transfer and transport, processing and disposal solid waste in a manner that is in accord with principle of public health and other environment consideration (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993).
Moreover from a dynamic point of view solid waste disposal and management in developing countries is predicted to face a great challenge in the future owing to their rapid urbanization and economic growth. In general, a one percent increase in population is associated with a 1.04 percent increase in solid waste generation and one percent increase in per capita income is associated with a 0.34 percent increase in total solid waste generation (Afroz et al., 2009).
Irrespective of the fact that most of the developing countries are still in the early stage of their urbanization and economic development, it is generally expected that the challenges of solid waste generation and management could be avoidable in such countries considering that most cities in developing countries spends significant portion of urban revenue on waste management (Osumanu, 2007: Thomas Hope, 1999: Schubeler, 1996 and Bartone, 2000 Zhuang et al., 2008) they are often unable to keep pace with the scope of the problem.
Senkoro (2003) indicated that many Africa countries, only less than 30% of the urban population has access to proper and regular garbage removal (Altaf and Deshazo 1996). The typical problem are –low collection coverage and irregular collection services crude open dumping and burning without air and inefficient water pollution control, and uncontrolled informal waste picking (Bartone, 1995).
Poor solid waste disposal and management in the developing countries is a major threat to public health and environment quality, and reduce the quality life, particularly for the poorer resident in both urban and rural areas. One of the reason is that in the developing countries it is said to be based on their financial mismanagement and constraint as solid waste management it given low priority in the developing countries budget.
Problem of solid waste in Nigeria started with the rapid increase in urban growth resulting partly from the increase in population and more importantly with increase in immigration status (Equnijobi 1996).
No town in Nigeria can boast of haven found a lasting solution to the problem rather the problem continues to assume monstrous dimension (Okpala 2002).
The Enugu state waste management agency (Eswama) was established to develop and implement policies on the management of solid and liquid waste that would promote the health and well being of the people.
The state sanitation law compels residents to cooperate with ESWAMA in efforts to keep the environment clean. They required cleaning up their environment bagging waste and disposing them at nearby designated dump sites.
However the Government of Enugu adopted different method of solid waste disposal. The incineration machine were used as recently solid waste conversion vehicles are used and yet solid waste still constitute a major health hazard in Enugu metropolis. It is believed that the refuge disposal vehicles are enough to cover the designated area. The areas that are more important to the problem. Within the Enugu metropolis of Abakpa- Nike; Trans-Ekulu, Ogbete market, New market,. obiagu, achara layout. Some people who were recently arraigned in the Environmental count for waste disposal related offences claimed to lack knowledge of where and how to properly dispose their waste.