THE ROLE OF ACCOUNTING IN SOCIETAL DEVELOPMENT (IN THE NIGERIA CONTEXT)
This research work is armed at certainly the importance of the recounting profession in the societal Development (Private and Public Institutions inclusive). It also high lights some of the problems which an accountant may encounter while performing his role as a professional. The performance of these activities by an accountant and the role he plays in societal development has made accounting the concern of the society and the entire business world. It is sometime said that accounting is an adjust of business because it is employed to supply financial information to individual and organization. Accounting profession could be defined in relation to problems it address in the society such as taxation problem sales statistics, urban congestion computer technology, etc. The accounting profession is not only for the good of the individual but also for the society in that it has managerial and social responsibilities to shoulder in the causes of serving the public.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
1.1 Background of the study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of problem - - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - 8
1.4 Scope (Delimitation) of the study - - - 8
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - 9
1.6 Definition of terms - - - - - - 11
2.0 Review of Related literature - - - - 14
2.1 Definitions of Accounting - - - - 14
2.2 Historical development of Accounting - - 17
2.3 Purpose of Accounting - - - - - 20
2.4 Users of Accounting information - - - 22
2.5 Presentation of Accounting information - - 28
2.6 Accounting Activities and Accounting officers development - - - - - - - 32
2.7 Probity and Accountability in societal Development 36
2.8 The role of Accounting in societal development 44
3.0 Research Design and Methodology - - - 47
3.1 Design of the study - - - - - - 47
3.2 Area of study - - - - - - - 47
3.3 Population of study - - - - - - 48
3.4 Sample and sampling technique - - - 48
3.5 Instrument for data collection - - - 50
3.6 Validity of instrument - - - - - 50
3.7 Reliability of instrument - - - - - 51
3.8 Method for data analysis - - - - 52
4.0 Data presentation and analysis - - - 54
4.1 Data analysis - - - - - - - 54
4.2 Presentation of data - - - - - 56
4.3 Data analysis - - - - - - - 58
5.0 Summary, finding, conclusion and recommendation 62
5.1 Summary of the findings - - - - 62
5.2 Conclusions - - - - - - - 66
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 69
5.4 Limitation of the study - - - - - 71
Appendix - - - - - - - - 73
Bibliography - - - - - - - 74
Questionnaire - - - - - - - 75
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This project is aimed at looking into the accounting processes are details and examining its role in societal development.
A study of the evolution of accounting suggests that accounting processes are reactive because they have developed primarily in response to business needs. Also the development of accounting process has been related to economic progress and societal development of a country.
History shows that the higher the level of civilization or development, this more elaborate and wider the accounting methods becomes.
Since Picolis days to this present day accounting has recorded a lot of tremendous changes and growth all over the universe for instance during the first sixty years of the 20th century, a major economic and societal force had thrown the accounting profession into new frontiers and responsibilities. The factors contributing to this growth are the increase in the population of large. Corporate business in the affairs of business by way of taxation and business regulations, technological advancement especially in the area of computerization which has rapidly changed the process of data procession. These factors, to a great extent, have deeply contributed to the development of the accounting profession over the years.
The role of computer in the accounting profession has facilitated the eradication functions such as payroll, cost accounting and general book keeping.
It is also being used for analytical purpose such as forecasting, cost benefit, analysis, etc. As professionals, accountants are expected to demonstrate a responsibility with the public services above their commitment to personal economic gains, Accountant recognize that special esteem. The enjoy obligates them to work for the improvement of society. Complimenting the obligation of society, accountants have analytical and evaluative skill needed in the solution of the over-growing problems of the universe. The special abilities of accountants as well their independence and ethical standards, permit them to make significant and unique contribution in such areas as protecting the public interest, preserving environment interest and controlling and improving public programmes.
In recent times, the work of accountants increased in scope.
The reward as added to the accounting profession include installation of accounting system auditing and investigation management of social activities and host of others.
It is also importance to note that the increase in the scope of accounting give rise to complex problem, which accountants must encounter. This is why competent accountants are needed in the various area.
Apart from providing accounting information the accountant also gives his opinion on a wide range of representations such as sales statistics, lease agreement, etc or to fact that, accounting is not for the good of the individuals accountants have to be conscious of the society’s benefit. This is because social responsibility and service with the public is the major objective of the accounting profession.
Thus, there is the need for the accountants to develop a social attitude towards their profession. Recall that the accountant is duty bound to exercise his duties with reasonable care, skill and diligence. He must offer his integrity and reputation to the public, which relies on his judgement and opinion.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The accountancy profession in faced with “teething problems, some of which include: