AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF PEACE ACCOUNTING IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF MINISTRY OF NIGER DELTA AFFAIRS )
This research work titled “An Evaluation of the impact of peace accounting in the economic development of Nigeria with particular reference to ministry of Niger Delta Affairs” the researcher investigated the impact of cost of peace-keeping in the economic development of Nigeria. Ascertained how oil induced militant activities in the region. Identified the influence of cost of peace keeping on the fund account of the federal government. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources which include Primary and Secondary sources of data Collection. Primary data: questionnaires and oral interviews were used to collect information from the respondents. Secondary data: journals, and other relevant materials relating to the area of my investigation will be review. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. The researcher found out that That cost of peace keeping in Niger-delta region has significant impact on economic development of Nigeria. That oil induced militant activities in the Niger delta region. That cost of peace keeping has an influence on fund account of the federal government.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Approval Page iii
Table of Contents vii
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problems 4
1.3 Objective of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 8
1.6 Significant of the Study 9
1.7 Scope of the Study 10
1.8 Limitation of the study 10
1.9 Definition of Terms 11
2.0 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition 13
2. Conceptual issues 13
2.3 Oil Induced Militant Agitations and the Nigeri an Economy 17
2.4 The Concept of Sustainable Development and an X-Ray
of Niger Delta 21
2.5 Niger Delta and the Agitation for Resources Control 23
2.6 The Concept of Peace and Peace Keeping Accounting 27
2.7 Historical Analysis of the State of Security in the Delta
2.8 Profile of Illegal oil Bunkering 38
2.9 Government Efforts Against Illegal Oil Bunkering 43
2.10 Impact of Oil Theft 46
2.11 The Role of Government and the Way Forward 51
2.12 Peace Methods and Solution. 55
3.0 Research DESIGN AND Methodology
3.1 Research Design 58
3.2 Area of the study 58
3.3 Population of the study 58
3.4 Sampling method 59
3.5 Determination of sample size 60
3.6 Reliability of Research Instrument 61
3.7 Validity of Research Instrumentation 61
3.8 Sources of data 62
3.9 Analytical Techniques 62
4.0 Presentation, Interpretation and analysis of data
4.1 Data Analysis 63
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis 68
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation.
5.1 Summary of Findings 73
5.2 Conclusion 74
5.3 Recommendation 75
The exploitation and production of oil in the Niger-Delta have created some of the largest fortunes for the multinational companies and have helped to achieve impressive economic growth and development of the Nigeria state, but little or no attention has been directed by both the multinational companies and the Nigeria governments to the effects of such oil activities on the welfare of oil producing communities (Ikein, 1990).
Oil has not as expected brought prosperity, better living conditions and governmental attention and development; rather it has become a curse and impoverishes the inhabitants of the Niger-Delta region.
However a fight for their rights against the multinational companies and the Federal Government has resulted in large-scale violence, crisis, social tension, hostage taking, man slaughter, kidnapping and other social vices of the region. The aftermath of these vices, is the high degree of insecurity in the region, which has led to the withdrawal of major oil producing companies from the region. The low level of oil production as a result of insecurity of lives and property in the region has a strong negative impact on the Nigerian economy (Ikelegbe, 2008).
In their effort to bring the situation under control, the multinational companies, governments and other stakeholders have been clamouring for peace in the Niger-Delta region to boost economic development.
However the term peace is relative and the conditions for peace differ from one society or nation to another. However Ibeanue (2005) asserted that peace is a process involving activities that are linked to increasing development and reducing conflict. It is described as justice and development, respect and tolerance between people, wholeness and making whole, and the absence of war. Despite its relative nature, peace has a common denominator, i.e. the harmonious or friendly pursuit of individual and collective interest defined by rules of conduct or standard of behaviour. Thus, in this context, peace is described as a condition in which people live in agreement with accepted standards of conduct or rules of behaviour that promote public good and the happiness of every one.
Moreover, various strategies are being devised by the multinational companies and the government for the enthronement of pace in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. Multinational companies are spending so much money to hire security agents to protect their facilities and personnel from militant attacks. The government on the other hand is spending huge amount of money to maintain peace-keeping forces in the region.
In 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria under the administration of President Umaru Musa Yar, Adua, granted amnesty to militants and these former militants are currently on the payroll of the government thereby reducing government current revenue. Akeem and Erhun (2010) posited that the recurrent expenditure of the Federal Government increases on a basis at an average of 12.69 due to security measures taken by governments to ensuring peace in the Niger-Delta region. It is upon this premise that this paper tends to investigate the impact of cost of peace-keeping in Niger-Delta region and the economic development of Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The Niger Delta had witnessed severe economic deprivation and social exclusion in sharp
constrast to the enomous wealth of the area. Environmental degradation, lack of infrastructural
facilities, inadequate provision of functional educational system and deplorable socio-economic
standard paint the picture of the area inspite of the huge wealth carted away by the foreign workers,
especially the expatriates that also live in affluence, in contrast to the abject poverty and deprivation of
the indigenes on whose land the fomer got their wealth.
There had been environmental pollution, forced unemployment as a result of land and water
pollution arising from oil spillage.
The Niger Delta communities as a result of these criminal neglect on the part of the Federal
government and the oil exploring companies responded initially through road blocking and shutting
the gates of oil companies. When these did not produce the desired results, pipelines vandalisation,
blowing up of oil installations, bunkering and hostage taking were resorted to.
As a result of the crises, volume of oil exploration, is assumed to have reduced, oil workers
operate in an insecured and hostile environment ,and frequently, the Nigeria Joint Military Force
(JMF) and the Niger Delta youths had clashed leaving casualities on both sides.
The government responses since 1957 when oil was first discovered in commercial quantities
at Oloibiri had not abated agitation in Niger Delta. That is, Willinks reports of 1959 to the creation of
Ministry for Niger Delta in 2008.
In 2009, the Federal Government of Nigeria under the administration of President Umaru Musa Yar, Adua, granted amnesty to militants and these former militants are currently on the payroll of the government thereby reducing government current revenue. Akeem and Erhun (2010) posited that the recurrent expenditure of the Federal Government increases on a basis at an average of 12.69 due to security measures taken by governments to ensuring peace in the Niger-Delta region.