A Critical Analysis Of The Impact Of Financial Reporting On Bank Performance (a Case Study Of Union Bank Of Nigeria Plc Enugu)

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The purpose of the study is to examine the impact of financial reporting on bank performance. It is also to find out whether financial reports are prepared to reflect inflation on the economy and finally to find out whether management’s financial ineptitude is usually disclosed to owners while presenting financial reports. The interviews were conducted. Source of information were primary and secondary. Presentation and analysis of data were designed to present and analyze the research result. The result of data collected were presented in a table form and the results were analyzed under the table after the presentations possible findings of the study were that some financial statement contained in financial reports influence investment  remarkable in banks. The annual reports do not reflect inflationary effects in the country to day. Again nature with the assumption that different users of the reports have different information needs. Accordingly the following conclusion were made; although investors and performance evaluation analysis relied on financial statement in their decision and appraisal the reliability of financial reports especially during inflation cannot be assured. It was recommended that the bank should adopt the current east accounting basis for its financial reporting to ensure credibility and reliability of information by the various users.




Title Page                                               i

Approval Page                                         ii

Dedication                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                          iv

Proposal                                                 v

Abstract                                                  vi

Table of contents                                       viii




1.1  Background of the study                                   1

1.2      Statement of problems                                     4

1.3      Objective of the study                                      6

1.4      Research Question                                           7

1.5      Significance the study                                      7

1.6      Scope and limitations of the study                     9

1.7      Definition of terms                                         11


2.0      Review of Related Literature

2.1  Introduction                                                  13

2.2      Background  of union Banks of Nigeria Plc     14

2.3      Need for financial reports                                18

2.4      Composition of banks financial report               19

 2.4.1 The Chairman’s report                                  20

2.4.2    The  Directors report                                    20

2.4.3    The Auditors report                                      22

2.4.4    The financial statement                          25

2.5          Various uses of financial reports and

information needs of such users.                    32

2.5.1        Shareholders                                             32

2.5.2        Long-term creditors                                    33

2.5.3        Short-term creditors                                  35

2.5.4        Tax authorities and Government                  37   

2.5.5        Employees and trade Unions                       37

2.5.6        The management                                      37

2.5.7        Analysts / Advisers                                    41

2.6              Financial Reporting by Banks                       42

2.6.1        Introduction                                                    42

2.6.2        The prudential Guidelines                            42

2.7              Performance Evaluation in banks                  46

2.7.1        Efficiency and profitability                           46

2.7.2        Potential and Actual Growth                        48

2.7.3        Loans and Advances.                                 49


3.0      Research Design and methodology  

3.1  Research  Design                                         51

3.2      Area of the study                                         52

3.3      Population of the study                                 52

3.4      Sample method                                           53

3.5      Research Instrument                                    55

3.6      Validity and Reliability of Research

Instrument                                                55

3.7       Sources of Data                                         56


4.0      Presentation and analysis of data  

4.1  Presentation of Result                                  58

4.2      Analysis of result                                        61


5.0      Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1  Summary of Findings                                  77

5.2      Conclusion                                                 79

5.3      Recommendation                                        80

Bibliography                                               82

Appendixes                                                84




A student who sits for examination expects result. A farmer who plants crops expects results. The same is also true of an investor.  A result sheet or a report card would usually sulfuric for a student. For the farmer, the result mighty be communicated to him in the from of a bumper harvest.  However, in the case of an investor, then result is communicated through the financial reports.

Financial reports are by law to be prepared by every limited liability company.   These limited liability companies abound in virtually all sector of the economy.

Every company shall cause accounting records to be kept.  The accounting records shall be sufficient to show and explain the transitions of the company and shall be such as to disclose with reasonable accuracy, at the any time the financial position of the company.

Financial reports in the banking industry are of great interest to the general public because the banks directly or indirectly interact with people.

This public interest has caused companies (including banks) to accept social as well as economic. Financial and legal responsibilities and has created a consequence, a growing need for the communication of information to account of the results which are of considerable interest to a wide range of individuals and organisations.

So, it become very imperative for reliable information to be circulated to interests parties which can enable them to acquire an essential knowledge of the way in which companies particularly the banks are performing in relation to the public interest. This fact is further educated by the recommendations of the working set up in Britain by the accounting standard committee in October 1974 under the chairmanship of Derek Booth man which took a study of the scope and aim of published financial statement.  The committee recommended that:

“The fundamental objective so corporate reports are to communicate economic measurement of information about the resource and performance of the reporting entity useful to those having reasonable rights to such information”.

It is not an over statement when one says that the banking industry in the fulcrum on which the national economy rotates.  This mammoth impact upon a country economy therefore makes it a public affair ie everybody in the  country has a right to know what such organisations are doing, more so all information, necessary to explain the organisation activities fully should be provided in the annual reports.

One of the most significant aspects of the information system of business enterprises in an economy is that which deals with the communication of  financial data, especially in describing business profitability and financial position.  


The     genuineness of financial reports has attracted diverse opinions from different quarters; such opinions can come from the general public, tax authorities, shareholders, creditors with long to short term interest financial analysis and potential investors.

They argue that the financial reports do not usually give an accurate data about the activities of such business concerns, for example, the idea of stating assets at their historical costs do not favour most investors as they argue that inflation is not usually taken care of, though the real value of such assets might have been eroded.

Again, since the financial reports are prepared by management’s, the shareholders and other argue that there would usually be some elements of bias on the part of management in the disclose of management’s financial ineptitude.

But in any case the management claims that some inherent problems would usually affect the accuracy of such reports.   It is therefore the intention of this researcher to delve into this matter to enable him establish a relationship between financial reporting and performance evaluation in a bank.




Those companies in the banking industry have had to face the anerous task of presenting a credible and generally acceptable financial statement in their annual reports, to various people to whom they own such obligations.

The specific objective of this study is to:

-         Examine the impact of financial reporting on bank performance.

Other objectives are:

-          Find out whether financial reports are prepared to fight inflation in the economy.

-          To ascertain whether or not management financial ineptitude is usually disclosed to shareholders while preparing financial reports.



The researcher formulated the following research question:

-         What are the impact of financial reporting on bank performance.

-         Is financial reports prepared to fight inflation in the economy?

-          Does the management of union bank disclose the content of the financial report to their shareholders?

-         To what extent does financial reporting affect the profitability of the bank?


Banking industry is a very important sector of the economy. This is because banks can determine the direction of growth or development of the economy through the financial service rendered by banks.  The financial services which includes, finds mobilization, safekeeping and custodianship, funds transfer, foreign exchange transactions, equipment leasing, extension of loans ad advances, investment in securities, bill discounting etc.

       At the end of this study, we shall have been able t establish:

1.     Whether or not the financial reports affects investment in the banking industry.

2.     Whether or not the annual financial report currently reflect the inflationary effects.

3.     Whether or not banks flow rigid accounting practices.

The importance of this research is not to discuss the determination of performance, but to establish a relationship between financial reporting and performance so that potential investors in the banking industry may clearly define their stance.


The objective of this study is to examine the impact of financial reporting on banks performance, however it will be restricted to investigations carried out on union Bank of Nigeria Plc. In Enugu. To  enable the researcher  have a broad view, the study will not be based on one branch.  A study of some selected branches of union banks plc.  Was also carried out.

Never the less the following among others are the numerous constraints, which are envisaged:

Literature:    The scarcity of related books and journals will no doubt affect the quality of this research.

Time:   Time constraint was a problem which the researcher faced during the period of the research work. As a study, the researcher was writing the project and preparing for her examinations.

Finance: The problems of inadequate finance cannot be over emphasized; this is because the paltry sum that was given to me by my parent could not go far in this research.

Again the cost of materials and transportation to banks could not help matters, I have to run around to scout for materials.

Responses rate:   In this study, the information to be analyzed was limited to those who would respond voluntarily to the questionnaire.

Cooperation:  To carrying out this types of work, one cannot rule out the possibility of a non-challant attitude from officers and employees of the bank who may feel  that they will be leaking the secrets of the banks by allowing me access to such information, which I require.


Auditing:  The activity carried on by the auditor when he verifies or examines accountability information determines the accuracy and reliability of accounting statement and reports and then express his opinion.

Attest:  To assume responsibility of the fairness and dependability of financial  statements.

Bankrupt:   Inability of a person to meet his liabilities as they mature or who is unable to pay his debts in fill and whose estate is administered and distributed for the benefit of his creditors.

Fraud:  A criminal deception, a dishonest trick. Misrepresentation by a person to be untrue or made with reckless indifference as to whether the fact is true with the intention of deceiving the other party and with the result that the other party is injured.

Financial Statement:  This covers balance sheets, income statement or  profit and loss accounts notes and other statements and explanatory materials.

Going Concern: Continuing in operation for the foreseeable future with the assumption that the enterprise has neither the intention not the necessity f liquidation or curtailing materially the scale of its operations.

True and Fair View:  The opinion of an auditor which despise compliance with generally accepted accounted principles and full and fair disclosure of facts.




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