The Role Of Policy Implementation On The Performance Of Nigeria Public Sector Organization. (a Case Study Othe Role Of Public Relations In Gender Conflict Resolution In Nigerian Organisationf Nigerian Telecommunication Limite

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This research work was necessitated by the need to effectively understand the role of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria public sector organization.

However, the government with relative capital has therefore failed an irresistible temptation of going in to detect investment in economic venture.  But of recent, when has been the nation the public sector enterprises are having problems in policy implementation.  Among the forms of business establishments, the public sector is the most dominant in the economy.  Lesser attention has been paid to problems of policy implementation in the public sector while more emphasis is being placed as their productivity.


Meanwhile, the failure of parastatals is not inherent in the nature of the enterprise.  Is there failure due to the incapacity of the owner and their agenda to allow management to manage the enterprise?


Infact, as the researcher proceeds and advances in his research, these questions will receive their most appropriate answers.  Also, vague ideas about its policy implementation performance and its activities will be explained including its pre-historic era.


Above all, the role of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria public sector organization, which is the care of this research work, will be outlined with recommendations for its improvement, continuous growth and survival.                                                


Title page   

Approval page              




Table of content            

List of tables                 


CHAPTER ONE:                  INTRODUCTION                

1.1            Background of the study                           

1.2            Statement of the problem                 

1.3            Purpose of the study              

1.4            Scope of the study                  

1.5            Research questions                 

1.6            Research hypothesis               

1.7            Significant of the study          



2.1            Meaning and history of government participation in business

in Nigeria   

2.2            Obstacles of managerial policy implementation in the pubic


2.3     Remuneration and motivation in the public sector                 



3.1            Research design            

3.2            Area of the study          

3.3            Population of the study          

3.4            Sample and sampling procedure               

3.5            Instrument for data collection          

3.6            Reliability and validity of instrument                           

3.7            Method of data collection                

3.8            Method of data analysis         



4.1            Presentation and Analysis of data             

4.2            Testing of hypothesis             

4.3            Summary of results                



5.1            Discussions of results             

5.2            Conclusions                  

5.3            Implication(s) of the research finding        

5.4            Recommendations                  

5.5            Suggestions for further findings                

5.6            Limitation of the study           


          Appendix   a                

          Appendix    b      




Questionnaire distribution             

4.1                                                            Management problems 

4.2                                                            Management fundamentals              

4.3                                                            Adopted managerial strategies                  

4.4                                                            Government interference and managerial

4.5                                                            Decisions             

4.6                        Efficiency and successful manager.













The aim of this chapter is to present the introductory part of this project work, sub-divided into the following sub-headings



According to Nwankwo (1992) in his book education and training for the public sector management in Nigeria states, that one of the most pressing problems of development in the newly emerging nation of Asia, Africa and Latin America is the lack of management capability for planning and implementation of government programmes as well as the delivery of various social services. Most of these developing countries have inherited from their colonial masters a system of administration and management that was designed for the maintenance of few basic services, law and order.


The administration and sub-culture have been persisted after independence despite the effort of these countries to individualize their public sector bureaucracies, but the rapid race at which programmes and projects are being either undertaken or sought b the developing nation calls for a different kind of managerial expertise in the public sector.


In Nigeria, the nationalists that took over the administration of this country after independence in 1960 were faced with the issue of nationalizing the various segments of the economy for the achievement of rapid technological and industrial growth. In most growing economy then, money was in short supply. Additionally, skilled manpower was in short supply and private investments were therefore very low. Government with relative capital has therefore failed an irresistible temptation of going in to detect investment in economic ventures. But of recent, there has been the notion that the government owned enterprises are having problem in policy implementation. This research will in this study look into the problem of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria public sector organization with special reference to the Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu, The publisher of printer newspaper.

The Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu was established immediately after the creation of Delta State on 27th August 1991, from the former Bendel State.


Its primary responsibility is to gather and disseminate information within Delta State and Nigeria in general. The affairs of this company is run by board of directors whose members and chairman are politically appointed by the state government.


The board is to lay down policy of the company while the chief executive officer (General manager) sees to the day-to-day implementation and running of the affairs of the company. At present the affairs of this company is group into the following departments, administration, finance, engineering, distribution, commercial and operation.



Okigbo (1994) said that the failure of parastatals is not inherent in the nature of the enterprise. The failure is due to the incapacity of the owner and their agenda to allow management to mange the enterprise. This is one of the many statements made by prominent scholars in Nigeria about government owned enterprises in Nigeria. Many of them are run at loss and government complained while the management of these enterprises accused her of total neglect and undue interference.


It is therefore on this basis that the researcher has considered it important to investigate these enterprises with special reference to Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu to look further into possible solutions to such problems as

1.                 Identifying the causes of non-implementation of management policies in the public sector organization and making due recommendations as a way of solving the problem

2.                 How the integrity of managers in POINTER influences policy implementation and its reflection on the assignment of organizational objectives.

3.                 Finding ways and means of improving efficiency and effectiveness in the implementation of policies in the said public sector.


1.3            PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The public enterprises in Nigeria as we have seen are characterized by                    many problems as regards policy implementation. This research work    attempts to examine how to make the public sector more efficient and effective.

The prudence of the management workforce, policies depicts and efficient and effective organization. This study therefore tries to discuss.


(i)                Problems of implementation of management policy in the Nigeria public sector.

(ii)             Remedies to the said problems and means of improving efficiency in the said sector.

(iii)           Strategies for such policy implementation and for alienation of public bureaucracies for efficiency in the said sector.

(iv)           Finally is making due recommendation in subsequent chapter of this research work..


1.4            SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In any research work, it is important to state its scope and limitation so that criticisms and or praises will be based on the areas one has covered. Same applies to this study, hence the study was focused on identifying and analysing, the role of policy implementation on the performance of Nigeria public sector organization and making recommendation especially as it concern the Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu.





The following research questions were obtained from the administrative section of the Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu to enhance this research work to the standard expected.


(i)                What are the problems of management policies in this organization “NITEL”?

(ii)             Do you think the fundamental managerial setting in NITEL is suitable for another organization?

(iii)           What strategies do you envisage in order to meet management objectives?

(iv)           What other machineries do you use in your organization?

(v)             Does government interference influences management decisions?

(vi)           Are you aware that for a manager to be successful and efficient, he needs a sound training and experience?




The following hypothesis have been generate as a guide in this study:

Ho:    Government intervention in the operations and policies of Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu is not an impediment in the implementation and interpretation of policies.

Hi:     Government intervention in the operations and policies of Nigerian Telecommunication Limited Enugu is an impediment in the implementation and interpretation of policies.


Ho:    Discontinuity in the work life span of managers and their tenure in office does not reflect the results we get from the public sector.

Hi:     Discontinuity in the work life span of managers and their tenure in office does reflect the results we get from the public sector.


Ho:    Political appointment and continued interference in the public sector with reference to NITEL does not affect policy implementation.

Hi:     Political appointment and continued interference in the public sector with reference to NITEL does affect policy implementation.





The study was on the role of Public Relations in Gender Conflict Resolution on Nigerian Organization literature was reviewed on gender conflicts in organization, discriminatory laws, customs and practices against women in politics and governance and women in and the media.


The study has the following objectives viz.:


1.       To find out the influence of gender equality campaign on the life of Nigerian woman in organisation.


2.       To find out the opinion of various classes of women on the issue of gender conflicts.


3.       To ascertain whether or not women are being discriminated against implicitly or explicitly in Nigerian organization.


4.       To determine the influence of gender conflict in the organisation.


5.       To ascertain the criteria of occupying management position in organization.  While two terms were defined as used in the study.


                   a)       Gender conflicts             and

                   b)      Nigerian organization.


The study covered Governmental media House (NTA) located in Enugu State Capital, Enugu


With the use of questionnaires given to the staff of Nigerian Television Authority (NTA), Enugu, the researchers were able to identify the major cause of gender conflicts in Nigerian organisation.







Title page





Table of contents



1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of Problem

1.3     Objective of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Problem

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Scope and Limitations of the Study

1.7     Definition of Terms


2.1     Research Design

2.2     Sources of Data

2.3     Population of the Study

2.4     Sample Size Determination

2.5     Method of Data Analysis

2.6     Validity and Reliability of Instrument used for Data Collection

2.7     Description of Questionnaire



3.1     Language/Religious and Gender discriminations

3.2     Public Relation Role for Gender Conflict in Organisation

3.3     Organisation Gender Conflict and New Public Opinion

3.4     Women in Public Life and Conflict in Organisation

3.5     Right and Duties Marriage

3.6            Unequal Right, Sex Preference

3.7     Sexual Harassment

3.8     Summary of Findings

3.9     Conclusion

3.10   Recommendations







1.1                        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Gender conflict in Nigerian organisation has been on the increase, since women intensified the campaign for the gender equality in Nigeria.  The crusade to actualize the universal declaration on Human Rights, African Chatter on Human and peoples rights and the convention on elimination of all form of discrimination against women participation in public life and in decision making processes has increased in recent times.

In the African context, women are not to be heard.  However, the present economic realties all over the world have made it imperative for women to seek paid employment or be involved in various businesses to supplement the dwindling disposable income of their traditional role of tending to their families (i.e., rearing children is fast becoming out-modes.  Despite the increasing role of women in today’s family as cobreadivinners a lot of discrimination still exist against women, which hinders the optimal participation of women in public life and decision making process.  Women are discriminated against when it comes to employment both in public and private sectors of the economy.

Discrimination and the feeling of marginalization remains the greatest source of gender conflict in Nigerian organisation.

The get pregnant and get sacked policy of banks and several companies in Nigerian organizations is illustrative enough.

This policy hinders the employment of women who are having babies into the banking sub-sectors.  It also stipulates that a female employee must have worked for three years before being entitled to maternity leave.

Some organisation makes it compulsory for female employees space their childbirth period between three to four years.  Many women have been summarily dismissed from work on the grounds of pregnancy.

In Nigeria, a women police Officer can be allowed to marry if she has served in the force for a period of not less than three years not only this, she must apply in writing to the Commissioner of Police giving the name address and occupation of the person she intends to marry.  This implies that if the policy does not find the man worthy in character, the woman must either wait for another man and remain in the force or marry him and get dismissed.  (Nigerian Policy Regulation 124).

In 1992, a bill expelling all unmarried women in and preventing their employments into Kastina State House of Assembly was enacted through the State Governor did not sign the bill into law.  Nevertheless some over zealous officials in some local government started enforcing it, (Effah, 1995).

Sexual harassment at work place has remained another serious source of gender conflict in organisation.  Inherent in sexual harassment is a power relationship.  It is often used as a means of executing and maintaining power over women in the work place, (Effah, 1995).  There is no clear-cut definition of sexual harassment.  It varies according to societal perception and circumstance.  Also hundred of female employees are daily subjected to various forms of sexual harassment at the work place.

The harassment of female subordinate by their male bosses, has lead to the women either succumbing and missing a promotion (the lucky ones) or losing their jobs entirely.  Sexual harassment could be physical or verbal, deliberate or incidental.    In recognition of the existence of sexual harassment at work, the Kwara State sometimes ago set up a State Sexual Harassment Committee under the auspices of the Ministry of Education, Ilorin to address the issue (Hassana, 1992).  Attempts by the Nigerian Women to expand, this role and actualize the limited Nations declarations on women and change breed conflict in various organisation.  The attempt is manifested in many ways.  The manifestations are seen mostly in the number of non-government organization fully initiated by women or are subsets of professional bodies.  Very vocal among this women group are the Nigerian Women in Journalism (NAWJ), Nigerian Women Lawyers (FIDAL), association of Women Engineers, Society of Women Accountant of Nigeria (SWAN) and the National Council of Women Societies (NCWS), the umbrella organisation of all women in Nigerian.

The interest in this study is the gender related conflicts in labour, equality and discrimination in Nigerian organizations and the role of public relations in resolving such conflicts.  Olawpa (1993:5) rightly said, “when there is basic agreement on issues and interest in society or organisation, then the basis for resolving conflicts through consensus is in place.  For a society to remain healthy enduring and stable conflicts must be resolved through consensus or put differently.  There must be a balance between conflicts and consensus.

Mba (1998:302), noted that each of us has the right not only to his or her point of view but also to different point of views.  We are all conditioned by different cultural psychological, physical and information frames of references.  As the world grows more populated and more complicated, the variety of point of views multiplies and difficulty in achieving agreement on the truth increases.  Because it is increasingly difficult to get one’s point of view, expressed in mass society, experts and specialist have come into existence to aid that process.  In fact, the profession has developed to provide council on communication between parties with differing perceptions, differing languages and differing cultures that profession has become know as public relations.

Public Relations is aimed at relating one public to another through effective and efficient communication.  Its techniques provide ways to relationship between individuals and groups with different point of views, especially when those differences can lead to misunderstanding, disagreement or even hostility.


Public Relations takes the views of one group and restructure it or translate it so that another group can understand it.   It is devoted to getting others to see the world as one sees it.  It systematized the persuasive efforts of individuals and organisation.  Conflicts in organisation inflict great harm to their goals, hence the desire for effective means of resolving them.  The research seeks to X-ray public relations in its role as an instrument of resolving gender related conflict in organisation.


1.2                        STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

Conflicts seem to be inherent in man that is why economist concluded centuries ago that human wants are insatiable.  Another school of thought on conflict has it to say that and individual can at time be in conflict with himself let alone with his neighbours.  This explains why the society cannot be conflict free.  Be as it may, our world has remained a world of conflicts ranging from crime, conflicts, economic conflict to natural crisis.  However, a new conflict emerged from 1954 when the United Nations Organized the first conflicts on the rights of women.  The result was the adoption of gender equality.  United Nations and Government made Convention around the world.  With this, came gender equality struggle and eventually, the concept of women empowerment and subsequent gender conflict in organisation.

This conflict is a by-product of on-going struggle between men and women on either side to control, direct and distribute resources in government, business and work place, even in religious circle.  The Pupils United Nations World Conference on women and by women ended in China.  Among many is the demand for affirmative action requiring that every 30% of every elective and appointive position must be reserved for women.  Nigerian Women were part of the Beijing Conference, which has increase gender conflict in Nigerian organisation.

Suffice it to say that here that, gender crusaders have increased public relations activities since conflicts have been on the increase in recent times.  Most probably aimed at restructuring or translating the new point of gender equality to be understood by the male gender.

After Beijing conference, how is the Nigeria women, paring?  Is power sharing the need of our women now?  Are they truly ready for it now?  What is the source of gender conflict in Nigerian organisation?


Have women not been opportune to contribute?  The women appear to be divided on how to go about the celebration of Beijing body.

The Ministry of Women Affairs is with us.  A man is the permanent Secretary.  Is that not conflict right in the women’s exclusive enclave?  All these needed much to be desired.  The need to attempt unmask, the monster behind gender conflicts in Nigerian organisation has become overwhelming.


1.3                        OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.       To find out the opinion of various classes of women on the issue of gender conflicts.


2.       To find out the influence of gender equality campaign on life of Nigerian women in organisation.


3.       To ascertain whether or not women are being discriminated against implicitly or explicitly in Nigeria organisation.



4.       To find out the major cases of gender conflicts in Nigeria organisation.


5.       To find out public relations roles in resolving gender conflicts in



6.       To research and then come out with a well analytical result of the role of public relations particularly in Nigerian Television Authority (NTA).


1.4                        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Women liberations in Nigeria are of the views that if women were given equal opportunity in decision making both in organizations and politics, the fortunes of Nigerians would be enhanced.

Public relations activities could influence the formation of opinion and corresponding change in public attitude.  Subsequently, access to power and share of organisation resources between male and female members of the organisation give rise to gender conflict therein.  Women therefore, are demanding for change for equality between genders.  To this end a way out is via public relations.

The result of the study would help to facilitate an acceptable decision on the much orchestrated gender issues.   Either to make Nigeria society re-appraise its norms and cultural values, or to allow women 50-50 participation or more than that or to help the women redefine their role in changing world or to better help Nigeria know how to utilize her women resources fully.

The out come would help Nigeria harmonize the human resource that are ideal and those energies been dissipated in the prosecution of gender struggle.


1.5                        RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research would attempt to answer these questions:


1)      Does gender conflict affects the prospects of Nigerian organisation?


2)      Who is the “Plaintiff and the Defendant” in gender conflict in Nigeria organisation?


3)      Dopes public relations help in resolving gender conflicts in Nigerian organisation?

4)      If gender equality is realized would it eliminate the conflicts?



This work is intended to cover the role of public relations in gender conflicts resolution in Nigeria organisation.

However, for the purpose of the study coupled with certain constraints, this work shall be focused on the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA), Enugu.

The poor record keeping culture of the Nigeria coupled with the excessive officials secret syndrome, of public and private organisation almost frustrated the research.

“Not competent to volunteer, information syndrome” by public officials in civil services hindered ease of getting the much needed data for study.  Also the reluctance of employees of private organizations to provide information did constrain the research information needed.  The study is restricted to only one organisation in Enugu State.  This has clearly limited the generalization of the result.



1.7                                  DEFINITION OF TERMS

GENDER CONFLICT            :         Conceptual definition the long bitter

struggle for quality and supremacy between men and women.


OPERATIONAL DEFINITION:       The disagreement of Nigeria Women to

the imbalance in number of men and women and treatment in Government, Management of Bank UAC, NPC, and Media Houses etc. in Nigeria in relation to men.


NIGERIA ORGANISATION            Conceptually defined to mean organized

enterprise within the Nigerian states.


OPERATIONAL                               Any organized business by Nigerian Law

in Nigeria Government at all levels in Nigeria, its agencies, the multi-international companies, profit or no profit.  That employs both Nigerians and no Nigerians and exists in Nigerian.














Effah, J. (1995):   Unequal Rights Discriminatory Law and Practices Against

Women in Nigeria (Lagos Constitutional Right, PROJECT)

Hassana, J. (1992):                  Women in Nigerian Economy.   (Enugu; Agena

Publishers pp).

Mba, E. C. (1998):                  The Role of Women in Socio Cultural Development in

Nigeria.  (Enugu: Maseon Press).

Nkwocha, J. (1996):      War Without End.  A Journalist’s Exposes on Life,

Money, Women, Power, Family and Sport.  (Lagos: Zoom Lens Promotions).


Nwankwo, N. (1996):    Gender Equality in Nigeria Politics.  (Lagos: 

Deutchetz Publishers).



Lesser attention has been paid to problems of policy implementation in the public sector while more emphasis is being placed on their productivity for the fact that this study is focused on the said problems in the public sector. The researcher took an in-depth look at the said problem before narrowing it down to NITEL.


A well established management machinery or a smooth running managerial team enable the organization to enjoy the multiple effect of its merits.


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The Role Of Policy Implementation On The Performance Of Nigeria Public Sector Organization.