EFFECT OF TRAINNG AND DEVELOPMENT
This research work centers on the effect on Training and Development on organizational performance using Nigeria Breweries (NB PLC) Enugu as case study. In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field which is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and group in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including human resource development and learning and development. The main objectives of staff training and development are to improve the qualities of the trainee, formulation of objectives for different needs and ways of achieving it. The training objective is very important because it determines the designed and content of the training programmes. Contents of the training remain the same no matter the type of training involved. It is to increase personnel efficiency, professional growth, smooth and more effective organisation’s operations and increase the organizational profitability profile. The population for the study was three hundred and thirteen (313) staff of the NB PLC Enugu out of which one hundred and seventy six (176) were randomly selected for the study. Questionnaire and interview methods were used to collect the data for the study. The data collected were analyzed and results presented in tables and the hypothesis were subjected to analyzing using the chi-square statistical analysis. Finally, the summary of the findings, were presented which includes:
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of Contents vi
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Research Hypothesis 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitations of the Study 7
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition of Training and Development 8
2.2 Concept of Manpower 9
2.3 Differences Between Training and Development 10
2.4 Purpose of Training and Development 10
2.5 Method of Manpower Training and Development 11
2.6 Principles of Training and Types of Training 12
2.7 Benefit of Training and Development 15
2.8 Assessment of Training Needs 16
2.9 Training and Development at Different Levels 18
2.10 The Role of Employee 24
2.11Employees Performance 24
2.12 Training in Nigeria Breweries Plc 27
2.13 Summary of Related Literature Review 27
2.14 Brief History of Organisation of Study 28
3.1 Research Design 32
3.2 Population of the Study 32
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure 32
3.4 Method of Data Collection 34
3.5 Validity of the Instrument 34
3.6 Reliability of the Instrument 34
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 34
3.8 Design Rule 34
Data Presentation and Analysis 36
Testing of hypothesis 41
5.0 Discussions of Findings, Conclusion, and Recommendation 45
5.1 Summary of Findings 45
5.2 Conclusion 47
5.3 Recommendation 47
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Training both physically, socially, intellectually and mentally are very essential in facilitating not only the level of productivity but also the development of personnel in any organization. Therefore, training can be put in a contact relevant to school administration. However, knowledge is the ability, the skill, the understanding, the information, which every individual requires acquiring in order to be able to function effectively and perform efficiently.
Human resources, are the most valuable assets of any organization. With the machines, materials and even the money, nothing gets done without man-power. Abiodun (1999) posits that: training is a systematic development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes required by employees to perform adequately on a given task or job. It can take place in a number of ways, on the job or off the job; in the organization or outside organization. Adeniyi (1995) states that staff training and development is a work activity that can make a very significant contribution to overall effectiveness and profitability of an organization. He therefore, provides a systematic approach to training which encases the main elements of training.
The effectiveness and success of an organization therefore lies on the people who form and work within the organization. It follows therefore that the employees in an organization to be able to perform their duties and make meaningful contributions to the success of the organizational goals needs to acquire the relevant skills and knowledge. In appreciation of this fact, organization like educational institution, conduct final training and development programmes for the different levels of their man-power.
Usually, before training or development programmes are organized efforts are being made through individual and organizational appraisals to identify the training needs. After the training and development programmes, an evaluation is carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of the programme in line with the need, which had been identified. It is worthy of mention that organization development follows the development of individual who form the organization. It follows that no organization becomes effective and efficient until the individual have and apply the required skills and knowledge. Training has been observed as part of human development. Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are for people to live a long and healthy life, to acquire knowledge through training, and to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible.
According to the concept of human development income is clearly only one option that people would like to have, albeit an important one. Development must therefore be more than just the expansion of income and wealth. (HDR 1990) since administering involves the creation and maintenance of an environment for performance, working closely or is isolation towards the accomplishment of common goals, it is obvious that administrators cannot be successful without well skilled and well trained people. The importance of incorporating training into organizational or institutional roles the staffing of these roles and the entire process of direction and leading people must be premises on knowledge and skills.
The need for improved productivity in organization has become universally accepted and that it depends on efficient and effective training. It has further become necessary in view of advancement in modern world to invest in training. Thus, the role played by staff training and development can no longer be over-emphasized. However, the need for organizations to embark on staff development programme for employees has become obvious. Absence of these programme often manifest tripartite problems of incompetence, inefficiency and ineffectiveness. Oribabor (2000) posits that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. In his view Isyaku (2000) states that the process of training and development is a continonus one.
Man is dynamic in nature, the need to be current and relevant in all spheres of human endeavour’s make staff development a necessity, to keep track with current event and methods. Griffin, (1978) Ajibade, (1993) Adeniyi, (1995) and Arikewuyo (1999) have drawn the attention of the entire sundry to the inestimable value of training and development. It is an avenue to acquire more and new knowledge and develop further the skills and techniques to function effectively. Scholars, experts, social scientist and school administrators now recognize the fact that training is obviously indispensable not only in the development of the individuals but also facilitate the productive capacity of the workers. Training is not coaxing or persuading people to do what is wanted but rather a process of creating organizational conditions that will cause personnel to strive for better performance.
Among others that highlighted the usefulness of training are Akintayo (1996).Oguntimehin (2001) and Graig (1976). They posits that training enhances productivity, improves the quality of work; improves skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude; enhance the use of tools and machine, reduces waste, accidents, turnover, lateness, absenteeism and other overhead costs, eliminates obsolesce in skills, technologies, methods, products, capital management etc. It brings incumbents to that level of performance which needs the performance for the job; enhance the implementation of new policies and regulations; prepares people for achievement, improves man-power development and ensures the survival and growth of the enterprise.
Pitfield (1982) is of the opinion that the objectives of training are to: provide the skills, knowledge and aptitude necessary to undertake required job efficiently develop the workers so that if he has the potentials, he may progress, increase efficiency by reducing spoilt work, misuse of machines and lessening physical risks.
Chris Obisi (1996) submitted that training and development aim at developing competences such as technical, human, conceptual and managerial for the furtherance of individual and organization growth. Also Akinpeju (1999) postulated that the process of training and development is a continous one. The need to perform one’s job efficiently and the need to know how to lead others are sufficient reasons for training and development and the desire to meet organizations objectives of higher productivity, makes it absolutely compulsory.