1.1 Background to the Study
The home and the family setup have great influence on child development (Adeyemo, 2001). Adeyemo further states that no other agents of socialization are as important to the total makeup of the child as the family. A home is a place where students live with their parents or guardians and it is place where they are groomed. It is a place where the students begin to learn the norms and values of the society in which they find themselves (Ogbemudia and Aisha, 2013). The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of early stimulation and experience in children (2007).
Tenibiaje and Tenibiafe (2011) states that home is a primary special agency that the child first belong to, come in contact with, and this has a great influence on the child’s physical, mental and moral development. This is because the process of socialization depends on both parents who play contemporary roles in bringing up the child (Igbinosa, 2004). The home, therefore, has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, social and economic transformation. Ajila and Olutola (2000) are of the view that the state of the home affects the child since the parents are the first socializing agents in an individual’s life. This is because the family background in the context of a child affects his reaction to life situation and of performance. This implies that the home could be seen as an agency that plays the most important socio-cultural, socio-economic, psychological as well as contributing to another dynamic roles in the history of individual and the society at large. The dynamisms include such vital functions as the educational and transmission of societal norms and values on children (Guler&Erka, 2013). The home also lays the psycho social, moral and spiritual foundation kin the overall development of the child (Eweniyi 2002). Therefore, an ideal home is expected to be heaven that provides a conducive environment an facilities for a child overall development, early education and moral upbringing (Adeyemo, 2002).
Home could be classified into: ideal (unbroken) and non ideal (broken). An ideal home is characterized by families including the parents and their offspring living harmoniously together and where the parents provide the necessary psychological, educational, socio economic, moral and spiritual needs of the children and other members of the household (Fadeiyi in Tenibiaje, 2011). A non-ideal or broken home, on the hand is the opposite of the ideal one. A broken home could as a result of factors such as divorce, separation, death of one’s spouse and poverty, among others (Igbinosa, 2014).
Nature of the family affects parental encouragement and attention with respect to educational activities, educational expectation, monitoring and supervision of school work (Kasoma, 2012). Ahiaoma (2002) submits that nature of the home has psycho-social effects such as social development, interpersonal relation ad pitiable emotional stability manifestations on every individual. These invariably have influence academic performance of students.
There is no doubt, either intact or broken, homes played significant roles in the growth and development of every individual. This study, therefore, investigates the effects of broken homes on junior secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
The junior secondary school, old kutunku was established with aim of creating a conducive teaching and learning environment in a bid to develop children of today to become quality leaders of tomorrow. The vision of the school is to strive to discover and develop intellectual and leadership potentials of children (FCT Universal Basic Education Board, 2017). Establishment of the junior secondary school, Hajj Camp, was also aimed at molding tender minds using modern tools in order to produce a crop of highly informed leaders with sound foundation built on discipline and determination; with a vision to develop a total child that can function effectively in the society (FCT Universal Basic Education Board, 2017). However, with the laudable visions and missions of these schools, many products from the schools are still waiting in term of characters and academic performance. Hence, the motive behind this study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
A broken home is a family in which the parents are either divorced or separated which resulted in fragmentation of the family. Fragmentation in the family mostly hurt children who need care, love, support and affection from both parents. It also affects children social life – physically, socially and psychologically – including healthy and personality of the children. Hence, the disintegration of families in a desired or undesired way results in children’ experiencing development problems. The physical, social, psychological problems, in turn, continue until school age, and affect children’s academic achievement greatly.
Academic implications of broken home are the main objective of this study. Therefore, investigate the effects of broken homes on junior secondary school students in Gwagwalada Area Council of the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The primary objective of the study is to investigate the effects of broken homes on junior secondary students’ performance in Gwagwalada Area Council of the FCT. Specially, the study is to:
1.4 Research Questions
To achieve the purpose of the study, the following research questions are raised:
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study is expected to benefit the following at completion: teachers, parents, students and the society, at large.
The study will be of benefit to the teachers as it will inform them about the degree of influence of broken homes having on students’ academic performance. Specifically, the students will sensitize the teacher to be more conscious in handling students from broken homes.
The study will be of important to parents at it will inform them the need for tolerance to avoid divorce, and to always put their children future in mind in all their affairs because future of the children depends greatly on parents.
Similarly, the study will inform the student to be more pro-active in their study and not to be intimidated by any circumstance that might come their ways.
The study will provide an addition to body of knowledge on the relationship between broken homes and academic performance of students.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study investigates the effects of broken homes on students’ academic performance. It is limited to the effects of broken home, common side effects of broken home, gender-related difference that exist in the students, and strategies for improving performance of students with broken home problems.