THE IMPACT OF BILLBOARD ADVERTISING IN THE SALE OF TOBACCO IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF IMO STATE)
This research work, “The Impact of Billboard Advertising in the Sale of Tobacco in Nigeria, (A case study of Imo State)”. It is an outdoor stationary structured upon, which advertisement of public service announcement were posted. The main objectives of this research are to remind user to buy the product. To achieve the above stated objectives, a systematic research methodology was adopted. The researcher tries as much as possible to explore all the strategies that are used by the billboard advertising company to the selling of tobacco goods. On the course of this project, the researcher visited various consumers in Owerri in Imo State to ascertain their level of consumption and identify accordingly their problems of consumption. The situation now is encouraging; this could be attributed partially to the down fall of the tobacco production and sales in Owerri Imo State and largely to the entrepreneurs’ inability to raise funds elsewhere. The researchers hereby recommend that billboard advertising to tobacco has to continue for it is a very good decision in the right direction. The money that is usually allocated billboard advertising should be increased so that there will be certain in the consumption of tobacco goods in Owerri Imo State. Companies must also adhere strictly to the rules of billboard advertising especially where it said that advertising should be continually accepted by the consumer. Since advertising is for a target audience, it has to be attractive so that who ever that sees it will be attracted.
1.1 Background of the Study
Billboard advertising has provided the tobacco industries with a relative low cost method of advertising and was used to reach either brand audience on specific target population.
Billboard advertising has what advertising industries calls high impression rate because of its static location that makes it viewed over again by target population thereby increasing its effectiveness.
In Nigeria, Advertising Practitioner Council (APCON) measures their guide. Line on cigarette and their related products, this guideline was to meet up with the federal government decree on smoking. They provided a standard for the assessment of advertising on the tobacco and also made it compulsory for all the advertising companies to comply i.e The health warning on the advertising of tobacco, which is the federal ministry of health warns that smokers are liable to die young.
According to (APCON) tobacco product advertising would no longer be aired on radio as from April 1st 2008, while the prolibitation of the product in outdoor media took effect on Dec. 31st 2008. Also tobacco advertisement in point of media which can only be done in black and white is restricted only to inner pages of newspapers or magazines.
According to Falcom (2004) APCON decision was predicted on the need to control (the smoking habit of our people). Billboard advertising is likely remain important part at tobacco product marketing in other part of the world like Chicago.
In Nigeria today, non-business organization such as hospital, churches, political parties and education institution used the total/media to achieve their communication goals. Non-business organization has much to gain from the use of billboard advertisement. Infact, they are the heavy users of it in Nigeria the sence of the advert is to inform, educate, persuade and remind people of what is been advertised. Billboard advertising was used in Ibadan the Oyo State capital to show the benefit of tobacco farming to the public which encourage the farming of tobacco in order to provide tobacco leaves for newly established cigarette manufacturing company could be investing a whoppery sum of 150m into Nigeria economy by the time its ultra modern cigarette factory situated in Ibadan becomes fully operational next year. Billboard advertising simply means an outdoor stationary structure upon which advertisement of public service announcement were posts. Few studies have examined how billboard advertising may be used by tobacco industry to target its audience.
The impact of billboard advertising by makers of tobacco on the smokers would be measured in terms of increase sales volume loyally and effects on the health warning against tobacco.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
It is obvious that despite a lot of money spent in billboard advertising of tobacco on Nigeria, the smokers habit of our people are still high. Business environment is fast changing competitions becomes more risky as the market and needs are fluctuating daily while legislations and external forces are focusing on business organization to give outward message through billboard advertising tobacco companies in the presence of the circumstance has to survive or die prematurely.
Given the rapid changes in faster technology and competition, it becomes risker for a company to rely on the sales of its product alone. These is because consumers need to be reminded of their products. Effect of competition can be adversely unfavourable to any particular brand of tobacco if it fails to pay attention to billboard advertising are undeed smoke signs, which pollute the air by exposing viewers to toxic image of a toxic substance, then the basic aim of any business organization, which is to constantly satisfy the needs and want of its consumers in the face of all these constrain by coming up with billboard initiative.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The objective of the study are as follows
(i) To find out if there will be an increase in the sales volume of tobacco as a result of billboard advertising in Nigeria.
(ii) To find out whether billboard advertising would make non-smokers to smoke in Nigeria.
(iii) To ascertain if brand consumers of tobacco would be influence to change brand by billboard advertising.
(iv) To ascertain if there will be a significant relationship between the health warning message in cigarette in Nigeria.
1.4 Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to the impact billboard advertising on the tobacco in Nigeria. It emphasize on the increase in the sale volume loyalty effect of health warning inducement of non-smokers in Nigeria.
The reasons why companies embark on billboard advertising is numerous for this study, tobacco company is chosen to study the impact of billboard advertising on the sells of tobacco in Nigeria.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions are framed to help the researcher to achieve the aims and objectives of the study.
i. Ho does billboard advertising encourage the purchase of tobacco?
ii. How does billboard advertisement enable non smokers to smoke?
iii. Do you think that non-availability of this products will lead consumers to look for an alternative?
1.6 Significant of the Study
This study will help any firm dealing with consumer oriented products intensively to recognize the great impact of billboard advertising in the market.
It will also help in accessing or correcting the misunderstanding of billboard advertising by the consumer that it is deceitful, does not act as buyers guide etc. Some billboard advertising serves as a source of information to consumer who are face with so many alternative in their daily purchase decision.
The society at large will also benefit from it and to give billboard advertising a priority attention needed to improve or increase scales. Lastly, this study will help the students and researchers in the academic work since it will serve as a take off mark for scholars.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researchers experienced some inevitable set backs in the cause of conducting this research.
Many limitation associated with this study includes:-
(i) Time Contractures
This narrow the ability of the researchers to get all available data that would have been useful in carrying out this work.
(ii) Financial Contrant
Since the researchers are dependent students, the financial burden to provide the needed finance out of his meager resources was enormous.
(iii) The Uncooperative Attitude of some Respondents: Some female respondents who felt why to be identified with smokers, affected the collection of data from this category of smokers.
1.8 Definition of Terms
The following terms used in this study should be taken to mean the following:
i. Tobacco Advertising
This is an advertising whose purpose or aim is to promote tobacco products (JOHN W. HARMAN 1998:76).
This is a panel for the display of advertising in public place, such as along high ways, or on the side of building (SCHOLAR 1996:61).
Advertising practioner council of Nigeria Apex regulatory body set up by decree No. 55 of 1988 for advertising profession.
iv. Health Warning
This is the warning made compulsory by APCON for every advertisement on tobacco should go with.
These are the consumers of tobacco products like cigarette, cigar (TYE, 1987:7)
These are leaves which are dried and use for smoking (ARNEL J.J. 1998:19).
vii. Tobacco Consumers
This are people who derived joy from the purchase or consumption of tobacco products (HARTMAN, 200:19)
These are the non-consumers of tobacco product.
ix. Billboard Advertising
This simply means an outdoor stationary structures upon, which advertisement of public services announcement were posted (KOTLER 1987:746)
X. Tobacco Farmer
This is the planting and harvesting of tobacco leaves (1988:168).