The Application Of Andragogy In Teaching Economics In Senior Secondary Schools

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Many Nigerians have passed through poor quality education because of ineffectiveness of qualified personnels in the educational sector. Many teachers lack the indepth knowledge of the subject matter but the worst is that majority don’t know the rightful teaching methodology in approaching the subject matter. Teacher’s effectiveness invariably affects students’ effectiveness. This study exposes the Andragogical method of education as the rightful approach in teaching economics to students in secondary schools.











Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Approval page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi


1.0      Introduction     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study  -       -       -       -       -       2

1.2      Statement of the problems -    -       -       -       -       8

1.3      Purpose of the study -      -       -       -       -       -       9

1.4      Significance of the study -       -       -       -       -       -       10

1.5      Scope of the study   -       -       -       -       -       -       11

1.6      Target audience       -       -       -       -       -       -       12

1.7      Research questions -       -       -       -       -       -       -       12


2.0   Literature Review     -       - -    -       -       -       -       14

2.1      The Importance of Economic among

students in secondary schools         -       -       -       -       14

2.2      The inadequacies of pedagogical system of education  15

2.3      What is responsible for the apparent confusion

in Nigeria’s education system  -       -       -       -       16

2.4      The need for reforming Nigeria’s education      -       19

2.5      Nigeria education system         -       -       -       -       -       21

2.6      The right approach to authentic education      -       21

2.7      Authentic education philosophy for Nigeria     -       24

2.8      The concept of falbialism                 -       -       -       -       27


3.0   Expose of the study         -       -       -       -       -       -       30

3.1   Nigerian education problems   -       -       -       -       30

3.2   Problem of teaching and learning in the classroom31

3.3   Administrative problems in Nigeria education system 33

3.4   Challenges facing COIP4C in Nigerian

 education system    -       -       -       -       -       -       35


4.0   Implication of the study   -       -       -       -       -       37

4.1   Ideas on how to make lessons more learner centered 37


5.0   Conclusion, Recommendations and suggestions     51

5.1   Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       51

5.2   Implication of the study   -       -       -       -       -       52

5.3   Recommendation -  -       -       -       -       -       -       53

5.4   Limitations of the study   -       -       -       -       -       55

5.4   Suggestion for further studies -       -       -       -       -       56

        References -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       56




Nigeria needs a better educational system than what we she has at present. There is no gain saying the fact that authenticity has eluded us both individually and collectively as a people. Our environment is polluted with artificiality. We ignore nature's gifts within and around us in preference to synthetic existence. We prefer to copy the work and life of other people regardless of our own background, nature and nurture. We thrive in sacrificing authenticity at the alter of conventionality. Because of these misgivings and misconceptions, we have persistently witnessed in our societies and communities cultural upheavals and disenchantment, political and democratic imbalances, socio-economic disequilibrium and academic backwardness.

All these individual, social lives and values are immersed in the deep see of deception. The position we find ourselves and the state of affairs of the nation is filled in utter confusion. It has been severally said that the life of any nation depends on the type of education it has. Apparently, no one seems to have any correct answers to the multifarious problems facing the country's education system. The government is handicapped in finding a lasting solution to the nation's education problems instead it is contented with the policy of remediation

Lack of authentic education has been the bane of Nigeria's existence from cradle: There are numerous cases of in authenticity in our society.



The method of education adopted by any country speaks volumes as to how far the country would go in solving her domestic or internal problems and her relationship with other people especially her external neighbours.

Each country has problems and needs that are peculiar to her and her environment and as such need to construct her education philosophy with regards to her needs. Education in Nigeria is an instrument par excellence for effecting national development (N.P.E. 2004:4).

It has witnessed active participation by individuals, communities, non-governmental agencies as well as government intervention. It is therefore desirable for the nation to spell out in clear and unequivocal terms the philosophy and objectives that underlines its investment in education. The Federal Government of Nigeria has stated that for the benefit of all citizens the country's educational goals shall be clearly set out in terms of their relevance to the needs of the individuals and those of the society in consonance with the realities of our environment and modern world (ibid).

Unfortunately, Nigeria's education system is still in the woods courtesy of strict adherence to the conventional pedagogical method of education which she received from her erstwhile British colonial master which does not consider the implications of such education philosophy to Nigeria's political, socio-cultural, economic, environmental and ecological needs.

The pedagogical method of education is devoid of reasonableness because the British came to Nigeria and other African colonial dependences not to develop them but to saturate their economic and political ambitions and so their educational objectives are based on how to maximize their profit and expand their territorial ambition. They introduced to the colonies the type of education that ensured their continuous domination of those colonies which emphasizes basically the "3Rs" - Reading;' writing and Arithmetic through which they produced those who could read their letters or directives (Anih,s ; Igwe, S. and Igwe, C. 2004: 110). This method of education is devoid of the 41h R reasonableness which is the missing link in our education system.


Since the system does not teach reasonableness, it does not possess the capacity to empower the citizens towards self - actualization, self ­fulfillment and self - emancipation. The system was only able to produce local teachers, catechists, interpreters, clerks and other minor workers, who have no capability to play any leadership role in economic cum socio-political arena of their countries. The colonial masters tended to cling to these leadership roles perpetually while keeping the citizens of the colonies in perpetual bondage of servitude. It then became true that no education philosophy could appropriately address the problems of a country than the one made for her by her own citizens because it is one who wears the shoe that knows where it pinches him. It is pertinent at this juncture to state that we know our problems better and should solve them better with our own indigenous, resources.

The educational objectives of Nigeria in the 21st century differ completely from that of Britain of the 18th century. There is a big gulf of difference in the spatio-temporal perspectives of the two countries and so educational philosophy planned by the British and for the British interests in the 18th century can not be used to solve Nigeria's problems in the 21st century.

The major alms of the British venture into Nigeria were for politico-economic interests to ensure steady supply of raw materials to their industries back home and not to train the indigenous people of Nigeria. They worked for gain and not for grace.

Thus, it can be said free of any equivocation that the system of education which the British people bequeathed to Nigeria was completely pedagogical in practice, dehumanizing and depersonalizing in intent and slavish in execution. Any education system based on pedagogy emphasizes competition instead of cooperation, me ism instead of we hood, egoism and monocracy instead of democracy.


The education policy formulated by the pedagogists always paid lips service to the teaching of reflective, critical and creative thinking even as enshrined in the national policy on education 1981 (revised 1998 and 2004) respectively.

When we examine the in-put and out-put of the nation's education system, we shall see how far we have performed woefully below expectations 'because of misapplication of priorities which is associated with the pedagogical stance of education. The Nigerian education system has failed to achieve the broad goals of education as mapped out in the national education policy.

It is common knowledge that most of our secondary school leavers do not possess the ability and skills to reason well, they do not respect the dignity of labour, all they live and hope for IS to pass their final examinations through cheat and "expo 419". They like the school administrators target only the end result. They are not interested in the means by which they achieve those results. The values and norms of honest living have eluded those children from the beginning and so, how would they be expected to live honest lives after they had been schooled and graduated in dishonesty. That is why in our political lives, we exhibit bitterness, rancor and turgery. The school curriculum is prepared and delivered in such a way that the children are not invited to think. They are expected to reproduce exactly what the teachers had given them thereby encouraging laziness among the pupils/ students hence there is acute lack of creativity.



The pedagogical method of education has dealt a great havoc to our education system. As a result we have the problems of cultism in the secondary 'Schools and tertiary institutions to contend with. The students vandalize school properties, kill and main their fellow students and teachers; they are threat to themselves and the society in which they live and above all they have been performing woefully in their academic out-put generally.

Anih, S. (2004: 109) states that negligence of reason results in the loss of everything. He emphasized the need for redesigning of Nigeria's education philosophy. We need an authentic philosophy of education to solve national problems in Nigeria.



This research study aims among other things:

I.            To do a survey on Nigeria's education system with a view to finding out how the pedagogical conventional method of education has affected the development of education in Nigeria.

II.          To show evidence of misplaced priorities in approach to educational issue in Nigeria.

III.        To evaluate the teaching profession with a View to finding a lasting solution to the problems confronting the teaching profession, e.g. the issues of falling standard of education; poor academic performance/ achievement of pupils/ students; teachers incessant strikes and cultism in our schools.

IV.        To see that the child as the center of education is given its rightful place in the education process.

V.          To point out and place the right values to our education system.

VI.        To show how the andragogical approach could be used to address 'the socio-economic, political and cultural Issues that affect education in Nigeria.



The importance of this study is that the outcome of the inquiry will be useful in:

1.    Addressing the Issue of academic backwardness of pupils/ students in Nigeria.

2.    It will address the problems of lack of motivation for the teachers and the taught in Nigeria.

3.    It will address the problem of placing much emphasis on rote learning and memorization which does not elicit thinking in the learner

4.    The study is like a roadmap showing/directing our educational objectives.

5.    The study will provide a format for redesigning the Nigerian education system.

6.   The study will help the teacher's educators in the colleges of education to see the importance of giving adequate training to the student teachers that is in line with modern methods of education.

7.  It will help the student teachers to embrace this innovative method of performance / achievement  through the teaching of thinking skills in a community of inquiry format

8.  It will help the education curriculum designers In formulating better curriculum for our schools.

9.  It will help to solve the problems of cultism and examination malpractices in our schools and education system.



This study is limited to the investigation of Nigerian educational problems and will cover such areas as.

(a) Principles and practice of education

(b) Effective method in teaching and learning

(c) Better management strategy for effective education administration and planning.



This study is directed to the following group of people in Nigerian education system.

1.          Student teachers in the colleges of education

2.          classroom teachers both in pre-services and in-service education administrators and managers of our various institution of learning

3.          Education curriculum designers.

4.          Policy makers and various governments at both, local, state and federal levels.

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The Application Of Andragogy In Teaching Economics In Senior Secondary Schools