THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AUTO CUT-OFF CAR BATTERY CHARGER
This project which comprise of many chapters that deals extensively with designs and construction of battery charger with auto-cut off which is capable of charging a 12 volts battery. In this construction research, designs was carried out which historic research was used to break down and evaluate to a low level understating of what an auto-cut of charger system is all and how it can be constructed and the main purpose of the project. The charging current as well as the power to the circuit is obtained from 1 0 – 18 volts 2 Ampere step down transformer. The law voltage AC can be rectified by the bridge rectifier comprising D1 through D4 and made ripple free by the smoothing capacitor C1 for charging purpose, 18V DC is used while to power the circuit, 9 volts regulated DC form IC1 is used. IC2 (CA 3140) is used as a simple voltage comparator drive the relay. After the series steps of inversion pure DC is achieved that can charge a specified DC battery. The relay saves as the Tripping command to the pin i.e to operate automatically when the battery is fully charged and when is weak.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vii
List of tables xii
List of figures xiii
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Charging Formation 1
1.3 Types of Batteries 3
1.4 Primary (Dry Cell) 3
1.5 Secondary (Wet Cell) 4
1.6 Aims and Objective 6
1.7 Scope of the Study 6
1.8 Report Organization 7
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 9
2.1 Definition of Important Terms 12
2.1.0 Transformer 12
2.1.1 AC TO DC Converter (Rectifier Circuit/Unit) 14
2.1.2 Filtering Unit 17
2.1.3 Voltage Regulation 19
2.1.4 Comparator 21
2.1.5 Thyristor 22
2.1.6 Resistor 23
2.1.7 Diode 24
2.1.8 Relay 24
2.1.9 Zener Diode 25
2.1.10 Light Emitting Diode (LED) 25
3.0 SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION 26
3.1 Design Methodology 26
3.1.1 Up-Down Design 27
3.1.2 Down-Up Design 27
3.2 The Mains Unit 28
3.3 The Power Supply Unit 29
3.3.1 Transformer 31
3.3.2 Rectifiers 33
3.3.4 Voltage Regulator 35
3.4 The Charging Unit 36
3.5 Voltage Comparator Unit 37
3.6 Over-charge cut Unit 38
3.7 Component Description 38
3.7.1 Resistors 38
3.7.3 Transistors 44
220.127.116.11 Transistor Currents 48
3.7.4 Relay 53
3.8 System Specification 53
4.0 CONSTRUCTION, TESTING AND PACKAGING 55
4.1 Construction 55
4.0.1 Component Soldering and Arrangement Used
in the Circuit Diagram 55
4.0.2 Construction of Casing 55
4.0.3 Packaging of Components in the Casing 56
4.0.4 Assembling of Section 56
4.2 Testing of the Project 57
4.3 Battery Condition Test 58
4.4.1 Sensing and Switching Circuit 59
5.0 BEME: BILL OF ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT
AND EVALUATION 62
6.0 CONCLUSION RECOMMENDATION AND SUMMARY 65
6.1 Conclusion 65
6.2 Recommendation 67
6.3 Summary 67
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1:Tables of values of resistor colour codes 40
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 3.2: Block diagram of power supply unit 31
Fig 3.3 Transformer and its output 32
Fig 3.4: Circuit Diagram of a full wave rectifier 33
Fig 3.6: Symbol of 7805 Regulator 35
Fig 3.7: Voltage Regulator and output wave form of
a regulated voltage 36
Fig 3.8 Diagram of MOSFET 37
Figure 3.10 Circuit and schematic diagram of
a polarized capacitor 43
Fig 3.11 Circuit and schematic diagram of
non-polar capacitor 44
Fig 3.12 Current path of a Transistor 49
Fig 3.13 Model of NPN Transistor 50
Fig 3.14 symbol of n-p-n and p-n-p transistor 52
Fig 4.1 Circuit Diagram of Auto Cut-Off Car
Battery Charger 61
7.1 Background of the Study
In the context of renewable energy source, a device which consists of electrodes and electrolytes for the storage of chemical energy, but brings about a reaction between it’s electrodes and the electrolyte in a ways to cause the flow of electrons through an external circuit is known as a battery the circuitory to recharge the batteries in a portable product is an important part of any power supply design. The complexity and cost of the charging system
primarily depends on the type of battery and the recharge time.
7.2 Charging Formation
In the realm of battery charging, charging methods are usually separated into two general categories.
Fast charging: is typically a system that can recharge a battery in about one or two hours.
Slow charging: This is usually refer to an overnight recharge, i.e it is usually defined as a charging current that can be applied to the battery indefinitely without damaging the cell. (This method is sometimes referred to as a trickle charging).
The maximum rate of trickle charging which is safe for a given cell type if dependent on both the battery chemistry and the cell construction when the cell is fully charged, continued charging causes gas to form within the cell. All of the gas formed must be able to recombine internally, or pressure will build up within the cell eventually leading to gas release through opening of the internal vent (which reduces the life span of the cell).
This means that the maximum safe trickle charge rate is highly dependent on battery chemistry, but also on the construction of the internal electrodes.
7.3 Types of Batteries
7.4 Primary (Dry Cell): are those whose electrolyte dries up when used to it’s ampere – hour rating and cannot be recharge. Dry cell batteries are different from wet cells because their electrolytes are contained in a low-moisture paste. Regardless of their sizes, they have the same basic components. At the center of each is a Rod called the cathode which is often made up of carbon and surrounded by an electrolyte paste. Different chemicals can be used to create this paste such as ammonium chloride and managanese dioxide, depending on the type of battery. The cathode and electrolyte paste are wrapped in paper or cardboard and sealed into a metal cylinder called an anode which is typically made of zinc.
7.5 Secondary (Wet Cell): It is the type of whose chemical energy can restored through a charging process. Although there are different types of secondary battery which comprises lead acid, nickel-cadmium, and silver zinc battery.
A wet cell is a type that operates by liquid electrolytic solution, it often runs down move quickly in a hot climate because the heat causes the plates to either from the electrolyte solution.
Furthermore, a battery is a combination of cell connected together and a cells is of importance partially where maximum performance and life are obtained. As long as a battery is in use, it stores chemical energy which is being converted to electrical energy falls. This falls in chemical energy leads to a corresponding fall in terminal voltage.
A constant potential method of charging is adopted in this project work it is a phenomenon whereby the alternating voltage from the main is converted to direct voltage through rectification.
The direct current from the rectifier is then passed through the battery that is being charged in the reversed direction in which the battery supplies current to the external circuit. The charger is intended to charge batteries with terminal voltage up to 12 volts. In incorporates a sensing technique to monitor when the battery has been charged to its rated terminal voltage so as to automatically cut off supply to the battery.
Centuries ago the use of tricycle was established with the help of coal engienes or horses to ride on the same paved horizon. Before the charger circuits with nIcke-cadmium, Nickel metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries. Which can be charged and can retain charged particles inside until it is used up with it’s connected circuit for operation.
7.6 Aims and Objective
The main purpose of this project work is the major of constructing a system that has the ability measures of recharging a battery when it runs down. The design conforms an auto charging cut off circuit that operates when the battery is fully charged.
7.7 Scope of the Study
The battery charger is a device that is well design to perform the function of converting 50Hz or 60Hz Ac into an equivalent variable DC output. The DC produced after the rectification process is then applied directly in charging of our batteries. The battery charger can perform the function of charging 12V battery, 24 volt battery depending on the desired specification of construction.
This project design function basically to recharge batteries not exceeding 36 volts and a line up of batteries not exceeding ten in numbers. The current supply of the charging system does not exceed 3amp per charging ratio of line.
7.8 Report Organization
Six chapters were converted in the course of design and development of this project. The chapters and their contents are as follows:
Chapter one is the introductory chapter that gives the aims, scope and limitation of the project.
Chapter two is the literature review, it deliberates on different related works done by several authors with dates. It also discusses on the limitations of some of these works
Chapter three discusses the design methodology of the project. Also discussed, is the requirement analysis which is all the information, gathered from a wide research on battery charger system.
Chapter four deals with the system testing and evaluation also how the components were tested.
Chapter five is the Bill of Engineering measurement and Evaluation (BEME) i.e the component last unit and Evaluation.
Chapter six is the summary, conclusion and recommendation. The contribution of the project, achievements and problems for further enhancement, and reference discussed in this chapter.