DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A CAR TRACKER SYSTEM
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Enugu, Nigeria
Nigeria
Enugu State
Nigeria

Design And Construction Of A Car Tracker System

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A CAR TRACKER SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this project is to design and construct a car tracker system with code using GSM. A good car attracts everyone including thieves. When it comes to the safety of cars, car owners should be very careful. These days, the market is flooded with many safety devices. Typically, the most successful ones among all is the ‘alarming device’. Car alarms are good but they cannot give 100% satisfaction. Smart thieves know how to dismount the smartest car alarm security systems in a car and before the police could start a search, thieves can export various parts of the car to countries like China, and the owner may never come to know if that car ever existed on this planet. In that case, a car tracker system with code using GSM can be a great option to ensure maximum safety. The car tracker system with code using GSM is designed for its users to control their vehicle anywhere in the world using mobile phone. If the vehicle is being stolen, the user can demobilize the vehicle while the GSM network provider carries out the tracking of the vehicle using GSM tower triangulation network. A registered GSM SIM card with a MODEM is used to get access to the GSM network and as well provides an interface between the vehicle and the owner. Other basic components used in the construction of the project are 9013 bipolar junction transistors, controller IC, electromagnetic relays, 7812 and 7805  DC regulators, and light emitting diodes, (LED). With this project, it does not matter if the vehicle key is there or not, or whether the vehicle is in motion or not the system must stop the vehicle. Therefore, the risk of theft or car missing is highly reduced, or completely eliminated.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page……………………………………………………………..     i

Certification …………………………………………………………      ii

Approval page  …………………………………………………………  iii

Dedication ………………………………………………………………  iv

Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………        v

Abstract   ………………………………………………………………    vi

Table of content ………………………………………………………   viii

 

Chapter One

Introduction …………………………………………………………….  1

1.1.    Concept of study      …………………………………………     1

1.2.    Classification of an automobile security system ……….   3

1.3.    Aims and objectives …………………………………………     5

1.3.2.      Scope   …………………………………………………………  5

1.4.      Common uses of automobile security system  ………….  6

1.4.1.      Theft prevention ………………………………………………8

1.5.      System block overview …………………………………………        9

1.6.      Write-up overview ………………………………………………10

Chapter Two

Literature review    …………………………………………………    12

2.1. What is car tracker system ……………………………………  12

2.2. Previous work ………………………………………………………        13

2.3. Related work ……………………………………………………    14

2.3.1. Automobile security system   ……………………………     14

2.3.2. The 74LS90 Counter …………………………………………  16

2.3. Lm555 Timers as a Mononstable  multivibrator ..……….  19

2.4. Sensor ……………………………………………………………….        22

2.4.1. Vibration Sensor ………………………………………………..        23

2.5. Relay …………………………………………………………………26

2.5.2. Relays and Transistors compared …………………………28

2.6. Transducers ………………………………………………………  29

2.6.2. Pressure Transducers …………………………………………30

 

Chapter Three

Research methodology …………………………………………….   31

3.1. Global System for mobile Communication (GSM) ……….  31

3.2. The structure of a GSM Network ………………………………        34

3.3. GSM Open Interfaces …………………………………………….        37

3.4. Mobile station ………………………………………………………       40

3.5. Subsystem and network elements in GSM …………………..      41

3.5.21. Network switching subsystem ……………………………  42

3.6. Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) …………………………….43

3.7. Connection between the cell Phones and the Network ….45

3.7.1. Supplementary services of eth GSM network …………….       46

 

Chapter Four

System Design and Implementation …………………………    48

4.1. System Design …………………………………………………..   48

4.1.2. The Hardware Design …………………………………………49

4.1.3. The GSM modem specification ………………………………       49

4.1.4. Preparing the SIM card …………………………………………      50

4.1.5. Sensor Unit Design ……………………………………………..       50

4.1.6. Touch Sensor …………………………………………………   52

4.2. Alarm Unit Design ……………………………………………..   54

4.3. The Ignition Control Circuit ……………………………………55

4.4. The light control circuit …………………………………………56

4.5. The door Lock Control Circuit …………………………………57

4.6. The Voltage regulator Circuit ……………………………………       58

4.7. The Triggering/monostable circuit ……………………………        59

4.8. System integration and testing ………………………………  61

4.8.2. Power Supply Unit Testing …………………………………  62

4.8.3. System Packaging ……………………………………………..63

 

Chapter Five

Summary and conclusion ………………………………………….65

5.1. Summary …………………………………………………………..65

5.2. Suggestion for further work …………………………………    65

5.3. Cost Analysis …………………………………………………….   69

5.4. Problems encountered during Design ……………………..   71

        References ……………………………………………………….   73

        Appendix

        Circuit Diagram  …………………………………………………75

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Concept of Study

Over the past years, automobile manufacturers have been integrating all manner of security system, to its automobile, so as to ensure that users are provided with all the security needed to ensure the safety of the vehicle. Considering the lifestyle of most users, the companies realize that its customers are always busy and most times have little or no information about lifestyle beyond their work place. Also from their search it was found that a large percentage of vehicle users use cell phones as their primary means of staying in contact with their family, friends and offices, (Joann Muller (2005-11-28,). This led to the idea of developing a system that allows drivers and vehicle owners to stay in constant communication with the world outside their automobile.

Since the concept of security has become a major concern for our world, and to most vehicle users, automobile manufacturers employed the idea of  vehicle security system which do not just help the human agent but could on their own completely provide all the necessary security requirements without supervision.

An Automobile Security System (ASS) as a form of a vehicle security system combines the installation of an electronic device in a vehicle, or fleet of vehicles with purpose-designed computer software to enable the owner to track the vehicle’s location while collecting data in the process. In this kind of security system, a telecommunication system and method is used for instructing a device interfaced with a vehicle’s electrical system to activate or deactivate specific electrical device such as the ignition, car lock system and the electronic fuel injector using a cellular network. This can be accomplished by utilizing a mobile terminal or a unit containing the mobile terminal receiver, herein after referred to as a “GSM MODEM” or “Radio Interface Unit” (RIU), which is interconnected to a “Power Interface Unit” (PIU).

The PIU directly interconnects to the vehicle’s electrical system and ignition. This system enables the vehicle user to access their vehicle’s electrical system from remote places simply by dialing the cellular phone number (a number associated with the RIU/GSM MODEM) from another mobile phone. The RIU when triggered will either send notifications via SMS or call to the vehicle user or receive instructions from the same user to activate or deactivate electrical devices depending on the nature of instruction given by the user.

With ASS the user can perform functions such as locking the doors, switching off ignition, monitoring temperature, turning on light, cutting off the electronic fuel injector and having different reactions for several situations.

 

1.2      CLASSIFICATION OF AN AUTOMOBILE SECURITY SYSTEM (ASS)

There can be many differentiating factors used to classify Automobile Security Systems   but in this work, we will classify them under two major headings;

·        Intelligent systems.

·        Non-intelligent systems.

We could simplify it further as microcomputer based and non-microcomputer based security systems.

intelligent systems: These are security systems that have an intelligent device, which monitor the space area or variable under guard, and provide a response signal when there is a bridge in normalcy. These systems are made up digital devices like the microprocessors and microcontrollers and posses a level of intelligence by which they measure the variables under guard. They can also be completely un-manned or partially un-manned. In the design of these systems, sensors and transducers become a major part of the circuitry. Sensors and transducers are the actual components that work with the processor to achieve a fully automated system.

Non-Intelligent Systems: Non-intelligent systems are systems that do not have any processor in their circuitry. This ranges from the manual crude method that employs human effort and the manually run machines that aid the individual to the monitored cameras and laser monitoring intruder devices which blare alarms.

 

 

 

1.3  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aim and objective of a car tracker systemis to have a reliable and highly precision security means to ensure the safety of vehicles. If the vehicle was snatched, the device can help make searching more efficient. Without a car tracker system with code using GSM, there may be chances of someone not getting a stolen vehicle back. The objective of a car tracker system with code using GSM is to give its users the reassurance that they will definitely have their car restored in a shorter time.

 

1.3.2 SCOPE

        The car tracker is use to immobilize or demobilize a vehicle when the authorized user calls the vehicle security number through a GSM mobile cell phone. Only the coded users/numbers can control the vehicle through their GSM phone. The GSM hardware system of the car tracker enables the mobile service provider to know the position of the vehicle anywhere in the world through their network using GSM tower triangulation.

1.4    COMMON USES OF AUTOMOBILE SECURITY SYSTEM (ASS)

Automobile security systems are commonly used by fleet operators for fleet management function, such as routing, dispatch, on-board information and security. Along with commercial fleet operators, urban transit agencies use the technology for a number of purposes, including monitoring schedule adherence of buses in services, triggering changes of buses destination sign displays at the end of the line (or other set location along a bus route) and triggering pre-recorded announcements for passengers. This can refer to the external announcements. Identifying the next stop, as the bus approaches a stop. Data collected as a transit vehicle follows its route is often continuously fed into a computer program which compares the vehicle’s actual location and time with its schedule, and in turn produces a frequently updating display for the driver telling him or her how early or late he or she is at any given time, potentially making it easier to adhere more closely to the published schedule. Such programs are also used to provide customers with real-time information as to the waiting time until arrival of the next bus at a given stop. Some transit agencies provide a virtual map on their website, with icons depicting the current locations of the buses in service on each route for customer’s information.

Other applications include:

·        Stolen vehicle recovery where both consumer and commercial vehicle can be outfitted with Radio Frequency (RF) units to allow the police to do tracking and recovery. The tracking unit can be activated directly and tracking signals followed by police or vehicle owner to track or monitor the vehicle.

·        Asset tracking where companies needing to track valuable assets for insurance or other monitoring purposes can now plot the real-time asset location on a map and closely monitor the movement and operation status of the asset.

·        Field service management companies with a field service workforce for services such as repair or maintenance, must be able to plan field workers’ time, schedule subsequent customer visit and be able to operate this department efficiently. Vehicle tracking allows companies to quickly locate a field engineer and dispatch the chosen one to meet a customer’s request.

·        Surveillance: here a tracker may be placed on a vehicle to follow the vehicle’s movements.

·        Transit tracking: here users ensure that the assets do not stop on the routes or do a U-turn in order to ensure the security of assets.

 

1.4.1   THEFT PREVENTION

Security is the topmost priority of any individual, group. This outlines security focus on cars for mitigating security risks to car owners. The ultimate goal of the security system is to prevent access to intruders thereby protecting the monitored device. This helps safeguard property of individuals, groups and organizations. The alarming increase in theft and related cases of intruders has necessitated the improvement on security infrastructure.

‘Immobilizer’, which is a type of vehicle anti-theft device, reduces a thief’s chances of starting or driving away a target vehicle. Immobilizers usually consist of a switch wired into some parts of the electrical section of the vehicle’s power unit, thus enabling the engine to be easily disabled.

 

1.5       System block diagram Overview

 

 

Phone

 

    Triggering circuit

 

 Digital Logic Circuit

Switching Circuit

 

   Fuel injector

Touch sensor

GSM modem

Call the car owner

Controls

 

 

 

User

Interface

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.1

Block Diagram Description

The car security system is defined by the units of functionality as indicated in the block diagram. The block containing the triggering, logic and switching circuits connects all the other blocks and makes them work together. It will provide the link between the user interface and the control of all the other systems. Besides controlling your car the conventional ways using the remote controller to arm/disarm, you can  remotely control your car using the mobile phone or any phone from anywhere in the world and alert you when there is an intrusion via a call.  One can arm and disarm the car by a phone call, you can lock and unlock the door by a phone call, you can inquire about the car’s status when you dial into the GSM Car Alarm. i.e. whether the alarm is on or not, or if the door is open or not, or if   the engine is started, etc., You can remote start your car engine by a phone call, You can immobilize your car anytime/anywhere to prevent hijacking by a phone call.

 

1.6.    WRITE-UP OVERVIEW

The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage.  It was written in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown in the block diagram below in figure 1.2.

 

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