The Effectiveness Of Marketing Communication Mix In Creating Awareness Of A Brand (a Case Study Of Unilever Nigeria Plc)

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This study examined the effectiveness of marketing communication mix in creating awareness of a brand. The study sought to know the effect of communication mix. It was discovered that these marketing communication mix including publicity played a vital role in getting product or a brand across to its customer. But it is vital to note that it requires the right arrangement of these communication mix that will lead to an increase in sales of a brand. The term promotion is to move forward or refers to efforts, therefore marketing promotion is the target goal of marketing communication. The researchers reviewed the past literature review of related studies, these were mainly in favourable comments about the six marketing communication tools being used. The researcher made use of questionnaires which were distributed to both the consumers and staff of the company which the researcher used as a case study.

Furthermore, the following findings were summarized as follows.

1.    Among the tools of communication trade exhibition is early used while the real are regularly in use to promote tarries brand of products.

2.    it was also shown that the effectiveness of company’s marketing communication affect consumer purchases positively, this was seen as  consumers decides to but more of Unilever product when they are intensive promotional activities.

3.    to know if their patronage is high or low in relation to personal selling.

Also the researcher suggested the following recommendations.

1.    Provide additional product information and suggestions for product care and maintenance through brochures of advertising.

2.    Increase the level of consumer involvement with their brand by  increasing the importance of a product attribute.

3.    Improving the sales force motulation. It is strongly believed that if the above measures are taken, the company will be placed on the track of efficiency.



Title page-       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Approval page -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi



INTRODUCTION      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

Background of the study  -       -       -       -       -       -       1

Statement of the study     -       -       -       -       -       -       2

Objectives of the study     -       -       -       -       -       -       4

Research Questions-       -       -       -       -       -       -       5

Formulation of hypothesis       -       -       -       -       -       6

Significance of study        -       -       -       -       -       -       7

Scope and limitation of the study    -       -       -       -       9

Definition of terms   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       11


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATVER    -       -       -       13

Definition of communication   -       -       -       -       -       22

Importance of communication         -       -       -       -       26

Types of marketing communication         -       -       -       27

Communication process -       -       -       -       -       -       42

Communication planning -      -       -       -       -       -       48

Marketing communication tools      -       -       -       -       54



RESEARCH METHODOLGY    -       -       -       -       -       58

Sources of data        -       -       -       -       -       --     -       58

 Population of the study   -       -       -       --     -       -       58

Sampling techniques       -       -       -       -       -       -       59

Research instrument used       -       -       -       -       -       59

Validation of research instrument   -       -       -       -       59

Questionnaire allocation Administration-       -       -       60

Method of data Analysis  -       -       -       -       -       -       60


PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA   -       -       -        -               -       -       -       -       61

Data Analysis and interpretation     -       -       -       -       62



SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION    -       -        -       -       -       -       -       -       91

Summary of findings       -       -       -       -       -       -       91

Recommendation     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       93

Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       95

Appendix I       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       96

Bibliography    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       97

Appendix 11    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       99






         Marketing at any stage cannot go without communication. Marketing started as a selling activity in which the manufacturer produces and expects customers to go in search of the goods. At the next stage the producer recruited sales persons and send them out to see the products. At this stage marketing involved extensive marketing communication tools such as advertising and personal selling. The current marketing practice is one rear employment marketing as a want creating and satisfying instruments. Marketing performs virtually all its functions by making use of effective communication.

Modern marketing calls for more than developing a particular brand, pricing of attractively and making it accessible to the target customers. Companies must also communicate with their present and potential customers. Very few goods or service can survive in the market place without effective communication. The marketing manager must endevour to make good use of advertising, sales promotion, publicity and personal selling as the promotional tools of marketing to attn market penetration and business survival and competitive advantage. In view of the foregoing the researchers intends to determine the effectiveness of marketing communication mix in creating awareness of a brand on Unilever Nigeria plc.



The Unilever Nigeria Plc Is one of the reading producers of Lipton follow cable, Blue Band, Royco, paste (close up and Pepsodent, Omo, pears lotion baby care, Hair care etc. in the country. The company has been witnessing decreasing patronage by the customers as a results of intense competitive from other producer that deals on substitute products now introduced what they called high volume with low price in order to in more market share and patronage. After about two years of that introduction of high volume with low price of Unilever Nigeria Plc it yielded no result, patronage still continued to decreased. The method which was introduced by then marketing manger and production manger lead to their dismissal for failure to deliver.

In order for the Unilever company to alleviate the problem sometime in 1988, the company now introduced the method of door to door step delivery by their workers, that was when convenience were brought in members by the company, the purpose was to ensure that higher product were available every where both rural and urban shops and market places for them to out weight their competitors and win more market share.

Though after years of door to door step delivery the problem still lies there. The Unilever company is facing the problem of decrease in patronage by consumers, people are of the opinion that effective integration of marketing communication will help boast the sales of the company’s brand.



The objectives of this study is to examine the marketing communication mix in the Unilever Nigeria Plc. These objectives are as follows:

1.          To find out the effectiveness of marketing communication in increasing the sales revenue of Unilever brothers products.

2.          To find out the effectiveness of company’s marketing communication on existing and potential user of the company’s brand.

3.          the effect of company’s  marketing communication activities on the pricing of a company’s brand

4.          How the various marketing communication mix are used by a company to achieve a common marketing objectives.

5.          To make recommendation based on the finding.



1.          To what extent does marketing communication mix increase the sales volume of  the Unilever company brand ?

2.          How does the effectiveness of company’s marketing communication affect consumer purchase of the brand?

3.          Does the company marketing communication mix facilitate the realization of company’s objectives?

4.          Does the company marketing communication activities affect the pricing of their brand?

5.          Which of the communication tools is most effective in the company?





Ho:   personal selling and sales promotion activities of Unilever do not create awareness of their products

Hi.    Personal selling and sales promotion activities of Unilever create awareness for their products.



Ho.   Personal selling and sales promotion activities adopted in the marketing of Unilever product do not awaken the customers interest

Hi.    Personal selling and sales promotion activities adopted in the marketing of Unilever products awaken the customers interest.



Ho.   Personal selling and sales promotion a strategy of Unilever does not lead increased customers patronage of their products.

Hi.    Personal selling and sales promotion strategy of Unilever lead to increase customers patronage of their



Ho.   Personal selling and sales promotion a strategy of Unilever impacts negatively on the profit of the organization

Hi.    Personal selling and sales promotion a strategy of Unilever impacts negatively on the profit of the organization.



The aim of communication with consumers and the public, by any organization is to let them know that the organization is existing and committed other welfare. Without communication most consumers would have been ignorant of the existence of certain brand and sources which are referred to their satisfaction. More so, organization would find it difficult to dispose off their excess brand /services resulting form mass production.

Thus, there is need for effective communication between he organization and its public, once this exist the overall aim of the organization would be achieved. The signification of this study there fore is to expose the marketer to those factors that can make their communication ineffective and to suggest how to avoid those flows that do not fit into the role of a communication and a promoter. More ever, knowing that the purchasing power of the consumer is seriously being eroded due downturn of the economy and the effect of this is he continuous fall in demand for the brand service of most organization. Increased in prince of these brands has also been caused by this recessive economy.

Marketers can find no their time to prove their relevance in the organization than this period and one of the tools that readily comes to mine in doing thus and which they are dose to is marketing communication. Do this project work is of great importance to marketers. To this end and insight into how they can choose the most effective tool which at most is done by the rule of thumb method. So it gives an insight and serve as a reference point in choosing.



The scope of this study is restricted with the frame work of the study of one giant company like Unilever company Plc, big users of marketing communication in Nigeria.



The study was not to be carried out within some constraints. Many factors affected the researcher’s effort form attaining the aim of the research proposal among the factors are:

1.          The time period given for the completion of the project work was very short and was not enough for a project oaf this nature. As the researchers have to schedule their limited time writing the project and preparing for their exams for the   award of higher national diploma certificate.

2.          Another limiting factor is financial constraint, the researchers would have loved to carryout a research work involved are zonal offices of the company but for the cost involved are making it impossible hence it is limited to two of the company’s zonal offices. Also the transportation cost involved in obtaining all data.

3.          As used in all research work, the respondents were not all that forthcoming in the disclosure of relevant data for the reason of job security and business secret, ‘hence the study by the respondents. The above constraint not withstanding the researchers hope this research work will be useful to all those interested in the marketing for academic and professional purpose.



The following terms are defined as they will be used in this study:

Definition of marketing: According to Kotler (1991) defines marketing as a social and managerial process by which individual and groups obtain what they want an need through creating, offering, and exchanging product of value with others.

Communication- is the process by which people through verbal or nonverbal symbols attempt to create an understanding or commonness between them.

Marketing communication mix- this is made up of four promotional tools which include various forms of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and publicity programmes. They are called the promo tools or promotional mix variables, in order words, promotion means “ to push forward” to advanced an idea in such a way as to gain acceptance and approval for it, the basic functions of promotion is to sell good or service or secure acceptance of an idea.

Creating awareness of a brand: marketer must direct it effort at creating awareness for its brand and favourable influencing attitudes and intentions. Many brand compete for the consumers interest and image-oriented advertising campaign in the case of wearing apparels, to swan consumer purchase loyalty.







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