THE IMPACT OF MODERN PACKAGING ON PRODUCT SALES IN COSMETICS INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF P.Z INDUSTRY PLC
This project work was designed to study the impact of modern packaging on product sales in the cosmetics industry. It is the aim of this research work to find out if product packaging (modern) increases sales or not. This research work have five chapters. Chapter one contains the general discussion to state the problems to be studied and why this study was carried out, the scope and limitation of the study and finally the definition of terms. A number of last related literature examine by other studies as it relates to the impact of modern packaging on a product sale in the cosmetics industry is highlighted in the chapter two. The data got from the research survey were analyzed and interpreted. And similar questions on both questionnaires were compared. Finally, the summary of findings, recommendation made by the researcher are all in chapter five. If the cosmetics industry would put there commendation industry would put the recommendation made in the study to use, they will not satisfy their customer, but a continuous increase in profit made and there by making the problems of the industry a thing of the past.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Formulation of Hypothesis/Research question
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 Definition of terms
1.8 Limitations of the study
2.1 An overview of packaging
2.2 Types of packaging
2.3 The roles of packaging in marketing
2.4 Consideration in packaging design
2.5 Packaging in cosmetics industry
3.1 Sources of date
3.2 Population of the study
3.3 Sample size determination
3.4 Sampling method
3.5 Research instrument
3.6 Validity of research instrument
3.7 Method of questionnaire administration distribution
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.1 Data analysis and interpretation
4.2 Test of Hypothesis
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary finding
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
We are in a dynamic environment, an environment where consumer taste and preference change with time. An environment that is very difficult to predict, the shift in consumer’s taste and preference of the controllable variables that enter the marketing decision, which only packaging plays a major role in the strategic marketing areas of the marketing mix are related, but only packaging is complexity intentioned with all.
Styanto (1981: 201) defined pacjkaging as the general group of activities in product that involves designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product”. In his own definition, Kotler (1988 – 471) also define packaging as :the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product:, while dictionary of marketing *181) defini packaging as the act of packaging goods in efficient and attractive container. The convertional purpose of packaging is to function as a container or wrapper for a product which will save it from damage or spillage.
Secondly, it serves as a vehicle that enable the product to be conveyed from the manufacturing point to the consumption point and the manufacturers satisfied consumers desire by producing packaging materials that guaranteed product protection. The packaging objective of most manufacturers is that they formed the above functions at minimal cost, the decision they consider is simple enough to be handed not by the management staff but by the manufacturing department alone. As at that time packaging was not recognized as an important instrument, as a result of this apparent neglect on packaging to its efficiency and as an important marketing instrument, marketing researcher were not encourage to work on the area of packaging and this resulted to recent pancity of information on packaging. However. With the develp[ment and innovation in modern marketing,, modern packaging on sale in the cosmetics industry also provide the tool for competition on the product natural habitat in the retailer’s shalf.
Consequently, marketers has not only accorded unprecedented recognition to the concept of modern packaging as a marketing instrument but also used it as one of the major variables they can adjust to a gaining a firm stand. The evidence is unbliaably clear that difference in packaging excellence is directly translated into corresponding difference in sale appeal. In the setting environment of a modern supermarket compete with as many as thousands of others for instance, the potential contributions of a superior package design such as more appealing illustration can cut a brand market share to less than half, its standing immediately prior to change.
However, Nigeria manufacturers seems not to imbided new development to packaging of goods, they have not recognized packaging as one of the variable a marketer can manipulate on the advantage of marketing strategies. This is traceable to the level of development in the industrial sector of the economy. The main concern of the manufacturers is to meet the market demand, rather than devising effective competitors strategies government have introduce measure to resolved this situation. The new industrial policy sector is designed to give a boast to the industrial sector and launch the nation into of production of various products. This era of mass competitive situation, only the fittest survive”. An effective packaging represent the means by which it can take control of the market. The importance of modern packaging neede not to be over emphasized. Cosmetics industry represent one of the industries where packaging marketing instrument play a significant role besides, in recent time he industry has attracted a lot of local manufacturers which each of them comes with their own brand name into the market, this has resolved the competition in the market whether local or foreign production order not to force consumer to buy their own brand. Since, the cosmetics market is facing stiff competition in Nigeria writers have written on packaging, on the traditional background, but still have emphasized the need for an ideal of modern packaging design on cosmetics.
Nwoye (1981: 99) noted that for some product that is not property packaged remain on the shelf of the seller.
Moreover, it has been opined and confirmed that bright coloured packaging adoring the display space of the shop which promote sales at a jet speed. Therefore, many competitive environment or situation like Nigeria to go ahead with the trend activities, your product must be packaged for high impact visual selling which impress the consumer. Nigeria consumer faced with scarcity of goods and limited choice of selection of cosmetics product in the market, this will help them to lay hand on many available product. The producer seeing this competitions both within and out side this economy, they try to enhance future of their product through good packaging design and adequate information on them.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A product package is often referred to as the nearest company’s salesmen. Effectively, an ideal package tries to identify the company’s product, the contents of the product and the right usage, cautions, the size and colour, product date, the location of manufacturer and expiration date. All these portray an ideal of effective modern product package design especially in cosmetics product line in which the research centered on modern packages seems to be enjoying a tremendous estentations designs that persuade the various packaging materials in the market. The stance of modern packaging in the market arouses the following problems about the role or impact of modern packaging in a contemporary marketing environment.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is that the researcher work is to ascertain the impact of modern packaging on product sale in the cosmetics industry. It is the intention of the researcher to investigate among others.
1) If the local manufacturers consider product packaging as an important marketing variables.
2) If the objective of the study is to determine the innovation opportunities of modern packaging.
3) If a product packaging perform some promotional functions.
4) How the producers can better designed product package attract consumer to purchase the product.
5) If a product’s packaging increase the number of users of the product.
1.4 FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS
1. Ho1: A good package design of a product does not attract consumers to buy the product.
Hi: A good package design of a product attract consumers to buy the product.
2. Ho2: Consumers do not look on product package as a good source of information about the product.
3. Ho3: Dealers do not consider packaging as a means of promotional strategy.
Hi: Dealers consider packaging as a means of promotion.
1) Has the function of packaging gone beyond its traditional aims of serving as a container protection?
2) Do Nigeria managers devote reasonable attention to product packaging?
3) What are critical used in evaluating the effectiveness of packaging?
The researcher is therefore poised to highlight problem areas and how to improve on packaging design so as to induce cosmetics to buy and impress them to buy their product in the market.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria today, it is not an easy endeavour to a company to manufactured and market products to the target market as it desired due to utterances in consumers preference, that is why the marketers of any product have to be more careful when assembling target market information, the finding of this study will empower sales volume and markets share of P-Z cosmetics company, Enugu and other firms in the industry. Moreover, the study will also beneficial to the consumers of this product because of the innovation that may be embark by the company, as a result, increase customers satisfaction. The study will be also beneficial to the entire nation. Finally, the researcher will not be left out because the study will exposed them to a lot of ideas by different authors in textbook, professional journals as well as past project research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is suggested by the topic itself, the impact of modern packaging on product sale in the cosmetics industry P.Z, industries Plc, the producer of assorted cosmetics product. The study also enable the marketer to know the importance of packaging in cosmetics product of P.Z industries Plc. The scope of this study is shaped to the cosmetics product in the contribution on cosmetics products in reference to the importance, the researcher covers and recommends certain measures that could help to foster the sale and packaging of P.Z cosmetics product, the study was made to cover Enugu metropolis.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms used into this study should be taken to mean the following
PACKAGING: According to George and Ude Nwanta (2009: 74) is the container or wrapper in which a product is enclosed. It may be glass, plastic, wood, metal or paper (carton etc).
SALES PROMOTION: According to Adirika et al (1996: 89) is the bond name for special kind of sale stimulating activity activities other than advertising, personal selling and publicity. It is often through of as a special selling in centive.
IMPLUSIVE BUYER: Is an unplanned buying behaviour that involves a powerful, persistant, urge to buy something immediately. (Arowomole and Adeyemi 2004, P: 175).
BRAND: According to George and Ude Umanta (2009: 72) it as the name, word, symbol, design or logo, which a particular product carries and is identified with. It could consist of one or more combinations of the items listed above.
APPEAL: This is the advertisements selling massage designed to a “customer” want, this is the appeal identifies what desire and what the product or service can supply. (Arowomole and Adeyemi, 2004, P. 14).
NOISE: According to Edoga P.N (2005: 183) which comprises inclearant messages or communication, which gets mixed up with the original massage. Thereby confusing it, or hiding it.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
FINANCIAL RESTRICTION: The economic unrest of the country which has put the system in unpleasant shape. Fund is the major hindrance to the study as a result they study was united to Enugu metropolis.
ILLITERACY: This is another main limitation encountered by the researcher, using the personal interview as technique of eliciting information needed about the effect of modern packaging on product sales, ignorance associated with illiteracy stood as an obstacle to the study.
BUREAUCRACY: The criteria for eliciting information in the P.Z Plc promises under bureaucratic nature of the form stand as a major hindrance to the study. As a big company, their hierarchical structure tends to be length, such that the respondents as a regard to the study were hardly met.
Inability of the researcher to make use of certain more versatile and appropriate data collection instrument, which where available during the study, due to the limited knowledge may have limited these, in obtaining data collection with those instrucment.