The Impact Of Self Service On The Performance Of Supermarkets (a Case Study Of Cyril Supermarket Abakaliki, Ebonyi State) 2

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          The purpose of this project is to examine the impacts of self service on the performance of supermarkets.

          The study is divided into five chapters. In chapter one the impacts was introduced and a narrative meaning of self service and other key elements included in the topic were discussed. It went further to state the problem to be studies and why this study was being carried out, that is the purpose, the significance of the study, scope of the study, the hypothesis to be tested and the Definition of terms.

          Chapter two examined all other studies carried out on similar topic and their relevance to this study. There were mostly references, quotes adequate statements made by other authors who had handled similar topics.

          Chapter three dealt with the major part of the project which involves the method used in collecting relevant data, research instrument used, the population and the sample size. It also dealt on how the questionnaire were distributed and treatment of data.



          Chapter four dealt with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected in chapter three, it also went further to test the hypothesis in chapter one.


          Finally, in chapter five, a conclusion of the whole findings was drawn and appropriate recommendations made for possible implementation. However, this study was not done without lapses and on this very platform, suggestions and further studies were sort.


          It as found that consumer have positive perception of self service; many of them prefer it because they use it as opportunity to select goods without interference. The study revealed that supermarkets that adopt self-services strategy perform better than their counterparts that do not adopt self service strategy.


          I also made some recommendations in chapter five. Such recommendations. Were that supermarket operators should train their employees on areas like customer service and public relations. Supermarket operations should also improve on the ways they display their goods since attractive display attract consumers to make purchase.

          Finally, I recommend that supermarket should be mare self service orientated since the advantages of this strategy has been shown.


Title Page                                                                       II

Approval page                                                               III

Dedication                                                                     IV

Acknowledgement                                                         V

Abstract                                                                         VII




1.1            Background of the study                                               1

1.2            Statement of problem                                           3

1.3            Objectives of the study                                         5

1.4            Formulation of the hypothesis                                       6

1.5            Significance of the study                                                6

1.6            Scope of the study                                                8

1.7            Definition of terms                                               8




2.1            Overview of supermarket                                     10

2.2            Mode of operation of supermarket                     

2.3            Location of supermarket

2.4            Impact of promotion of supermarket

2.5            Marketing strategies

2.6            Management of supermarkets

2.7            The need for self services in the performance of supermarket

2.8            Sale performance indicated in supermarket

2.9            Self service operation and its attendance problem



3.1            Sources of data

3.2            Research instrument

3.3            Questionnaire design

3.4            Population of study

3.5            Sample size

3.6            Sample size for staff and management

3.7            Questionnaire distribution and collection

3.8            Treatment of data

3.9            Limitation of study



4.1            Data analysis

4.2            Statistical hypothesis   

4.3            Choice of test hypothesis



5.1            Summary of findings

5.2            Recommendations

5.3            Conclusion

5.4            Suggestion for further study







Public relations has become a potent marketing tool in modern business management in recent times, its influence is being fact on both big and small firms with the influence of even greater expansion, it is important for management organisations including tertiary institutions to understand its potentials and limitations.

Nwokoye (1984: 212) defined public relations as the activities of co-operation union, government or other organisations in building and marketing sound and productive relations with special public such as customers, relation employees in stock holders and with public at large so as to adopt itself to its environment and interprets itself to the society.

Busch and Houston (1995: 200) noted that public relations is management function which evaluate public attitude identifies polices and procedures of an individuals or an organisations with the public interest and execute a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

Chukwu (2000: 3-4) stated that public relations practice a management philosophy aimed at doing every thing possible to create good relationship between an organisation and its public. Public relations is aimed at making friends for the organisation and building internal and external good will on the reasonable assumption that these are strongly needed for an organisation to remain in business and make profit with the increase in the activities of an organisation. The need for an adequate communication between the organisation and those who in one way or the other are affected by these activities of the organisation while wanting to remain liable need to have good relation with its employees, consumers of its products and services, future investors, stock holders and infact that general public. As an organisation specialized in manifesting or offering services, its needs to slow it salt, existing, or potential customers that is up to date toward cooking concerned to produce and offer the between goods and savvies for the prices it charges and make sure that its customers are really satisfied.            

Edoga and Ani (2001: 287) noted that a company should deliberately plan and execute a continuous public relations programmes to develop a good relation between it and the various public and amongst other objectives that are being sought with public relations.

Stressing the position of public relations in the country. Olawnon (1999: 194) noted that most officials occupying the public relations positions of various organisation in the country today are not professionals thy generally have a fair knowledge  of what they are supposed to do.

ESUT as an institution or organisation has the students, members of its staff, parents, teachers, association, the management, the host society, the state and the federal government, Nigerian university commission (NUC) etc as its relevant publics. This implies that the activities performed by ESUT in one way or the other effect those of the mentioned publics. Therefore in order to maintain its public relations with those bodies, ESUT must al all time try to create a rapport and understanding or goodwill with all these bodies. This it will do through proper information circulation between itself and those various relevant publics to it. This can be done by allowing the free flow of information paying salaries as at when due to the staffs, engaging in proper and standard academies work,  activity by the rules and regulations of NUC in the performance of its activities. Manufacturers and producers of goods and services are now aware that public relations does not only ensure good relation with the public but can strive toward profit making through increased customers patronage. It  is in the light of the importance attached to public relations that the researcher seeks to appraise the effectiveness of public relations practice in Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT).



A good corporate image is usually regarded to be essential for the exist of an organisation. The success or failure of a corporation depends on its relationship with its public, consumers, employees, stock holders, government community, distributors, suppliers and others.

A favorable corporate image create confidence in an organisation or institution. There has been ocational truble in tertiary institutions, some leading to close for some months or years. The internal problems in our institutions has become the open issue of the day. But ESUT has always remained in section despite the occasional occurrences of this ugly students. The questions that called for answer was why has this problem of internal matters disturb in our tertiary institution?

Why has ESUT not witness the major breaking down of law and order despite the increase  in shorle fees?

Why has ESUT been able to maintain peace despite the fact that there one some people that do not go down well with the staff, lecturers, and the students of the institution?

To what extent has public relations contributed in maintaining of peace and harmony in the institution. These and many more are the center of the research work.



Some consumers (students) prefers the services of some tertiary institution to others. This fact need be accounted for by the level of public relations practiced by these institution. even at the research study has the following objectives.                            

a)                 To find  out the level of attention given to consumers (students) in ESUT.

b)                To find out whether the institution have good relationship ith the press.

c)                 To determine the level of students lecturers, staff and management relations in ESUT

d)                To know how public relations help in improving communication between the people and organisation.

e)                 To recommend solution to problems of public relations that has be identified.

f)                  To determine the impact of public relations and consumer (students) patronage.

g)                 To appraise this public relations activities of Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT).



          On the course of this research work, the following hypothesis has been pattern towards by the researcher

1.       Ho:    Public relations of ESUT does not lead to increase in awareness

of the services of ESUT.   

          Hi:     Public relations of ESUT lead to increase in awareness

of the services of ESUT. 

2.       Ho:    The relation between the students, lecturers and staff of the

institution is not poor.

          Hi:     The relation between the students, lecturers and staff of the

institution is very poor.

3.       Ho:    Public relations activities of ESUT does not lead to customers

(Students) patronage. 

          Hi:     Public relations activities of ESUT lead to customers (Students)




The most of outstanding hope of this study is that its findings will be of immense benefit to students, lecturer and staff of management of territory institutions, which will help in minimum conflicts in these institutions.

The study also gave an insight into the problem and practices of public relations in Nigeria institution of higher learning.

This study by its objective will not only assess the effectiveness of classified public relations. But as its application and uses generally, therefore, when successfully this project wake or research work is carried out and documented, it will serve as a source of relevant information to many institution and organisations on the ways of using public relations and its importance.

Finally, public relations practitioners have been deprived of excellent performance in there operations because of scary and insufficient data and inadequate literature s availability in this area. This study when successfully completed and adequately supervised will be an addition to the inessential literature  needed  in the public relations a vital areas of marketing communication. Public relations practitioners and consultants will therefore use its extensively for reference. Based on forgoing, it become indisputable that the need for this study is worthwhile.

1.6 & 1.7    SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY               

          The study covers public relations activity in view of limited time and other constraints was place on Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT). The following factors handicapped and constrained the researcher from attaining the Zenith of the research. Among these are as follow: -

          The nature of this study demands much cost than what the researcher a poor student could afford. This made the scope of the study to be almost two narrowed to enable the researcher have a sample that could be effectively studied, bearing in mind the cost involved.                 

          Again the literacy level  even in the higher institutions is very discouraging one, in carrying out a research researches of this sort. As a result, problems were encountered in completion of questionnaires as some were not properly filled.




          In writing this research work, some words will be steadily use in many places in process of completing this research view, opinion of something such as

services or product held by the public.  

Marketing:The management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers requirement in a profitable way or with the intention of making profit.  


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