AN ASSESSMENT OF MASS MEDIA’S ROLE IN SUPPORTING WOMEN EMPLOYMENT CAMPAIGN IN NIGERIA
The campaign for women employment and emancipation in Nigeria has taken a new dimension sequent to the new development in the literacy level of our women and the level of development in mass media.
The right of women have been severally abused and neglected. Women have been relegated to the background and kept about from the scheme of things simply because of unorthodox beliefs. today, some women have been forced to accepts that their major role should be in the kitchen.
Today, women in Nigeria are quickly realizing their supposed role in the society. More educated women are now speaking out against the injustice being meted out to the women folks. At that point, thermal which the mass media is supposed to play comes in. as a good agent of socialization, the mass media which concepts the radio, television and the press is expected to champion the campaign for women employment.
Being the case, I researched and evaluated the attitudes, contributions and problems of the mass media towards this direction. I also gave useful suggestions on how best the mass media should go in order to succeed in this worthy campaign for women employment.
TABLE OF CONTENT
COVER PAGE I
TITLE PAGE II
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLE OF CONTENT VII
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 3
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 7
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 8
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION 9
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES, CONCEPTUAL AND
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS 9
1.7 ASSUMPTIONS 12
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 12
LITERATURE REVIEW 14
MASS MEDIA’ CONTRIBUTION 17
2.1 ROLE OF RADIO 17
2.2 TELEVISION AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT 19
2.3 THE PRESS AND WOMEN -
EMPOWERMENT CAMPAIGN 20
2.4 NEED FOR WOMEN EMPLOYMENT CAMPAIGN. 22
2.5 PROBLEMS HINDERING THE MASS MEDIA IN IT
CAMPAIGN IN SUPPORT OF WOMEN-
2.6 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW. 26
3.1 RESEARCH METHOD 27
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN 28
3.3 RESEARCH SAMPLE 28
3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 29
3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 30
3.6 MEASURING INSTRUMENT 30
3.7 DATA COLLECTION 30
3.8 DATA ANALYSIS 31
3.9 EXPECTED RESULTS 32
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT 33
4.1 DATA ANALYSIS 33
4.2 RESULT 46
5.1 CONCLUSION 51
5.2 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
5.3 QUESTIONNAIRE 53
5.4 BIBLIOGRAPHY 60
The mass media have played a vital role supporting women employment campaign in Nigeria. This it achieves using it’s channels which include: the radio, the television, newspaper and magazines, books journals and so on.
In addition to supporting women empowerment campaign, they also performs the functions of socialization, information, education, communication by carrying out enlightenment programmes. They create forum for information and motivation.
The fundamental function of the mass media is mainly to expose, provide and enhance incidental learning. They have the capacity to reflect and shape opinion thus playing active role in public attitude formation. It is a very effective body of communication with good and wide availability which makes it more convincing that a large number of people are more likely to be influenced. Therefore, the mass media aims at converting, re –enforcing, charging or persuading the activities of people in a given society.
A unique between the mass media and other agents of socialization and techniques by which specialized groups employ technological device “press, radio, films etc. to disseminate symbolic content to a large public.
In assessing the role of the mass media in supporting women employment campaign in Nigeria therefore, one takes into cognizance those roles both the radio, television, newspaper, magazines, books and journals etc. have played by improving and ensuring the welfare of the women in our society.
Abiola Akiyode Afolabi – a Lawyer and the Executive Director of women advocates research and documentation centre, WARDC emphasized the need for women to clamour for their rights and make the states to be more sensitive to their issues.
In Nigeria, women constitute 497 percent of our population, based on the 1991 census. They therefore argue that in as much as they are almost equal to the population of men, they don’t know why the government can continue to rule without being sensitive to the rights of women. They therefore suggest that government should take issues of women as priority.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The role of the mass media in any society includes:
§ Providing semi – formal kind of socialization
§ Providing avenue for good listening, observation and imitation.
§ Providing modern communication.
§ Providing the child or an individual with the knowledge of wide world.
§ Organizing educative programmes that impacts knowledge to both youths and children.
§ Bringing to our homes the different culture of different people,
§ Entertaining the audience and
§ Creating role models.
In the light of the foregoing, one cannot neglect the enormous powers of the mass media having consideration for the vast medium of communication it possesses.
Over thew years, the need for women empowerment has continued to rise. In our newspaper, magazines, over the radio, in the televisions, it have been variously discussed many writers have put their opinions together in form of books and journals.
RADIO: Radio operations in Nigeria dates back to the year 1935 when Gazette Notice No. 1098 of September that year enumerated the conditions for the installation to subscribers of the P and T loudspeakers. The Nigeria Broadcasting service (Nigeria Broadcasting corporation) later took over on April 1, 1952. since that period, radio broadcasting have greatly contributed towards the enhancement of women empowerment in Nigeria.
Today, the federal radio cooperation of Nigeria have it’s stations in almost all the states of the federation. These stations reach out to the people with far reaching effects.
The history of television operation in Nigeria dates back to outcome of the 1973 broadcasting organisation of Nigeria Bon experiment with the NTA.
Basically, the Nigerian Television Authority was empowered among other things, to co – ordinate the activities of the entire television network in the country. Thereafter, six operation zones was set up to effectively manage all the NTA station.
With its advantage of possessing both audio and visual effects, the television has greatly contributed to the development in Nigeria. Today, television stations a abound in almost all the states of the federation carrying the message of women empowerment vigorously.
The Nigeria of the Nigerian press fall into broad categories: the pre – independence period and the post independence period till the present day. In Abeokuta, Reverend Henry Townsend established the first newspaper in Nigeria called “Iwe Irohin”, in December 1859. since then, other newspapers emerged and continued to carry out the campaign for women empowerment.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The campaign for women empowerment in Nigeria has intensified since education have made greater percentage of the women populace to be conscious of their rights. Nigeria’s 1999 constitution guaranteed everyone the right to freedom from discrimination on the grounds of sex.
Nigeria currently is the largest black Nation in Africa and the most populous, having 49.7 percent women out of the current population number; as stipulated by the 1991 census. The contribution of the women in socio – economic, political and cultural development of Nigeria cannot be over emphasized.
In view of the above, it is expected that women with their large number in the society, should be embraced into the scheme of things instead of being relegated to the background. Already, in our various schools of higher learning, female student journalists have continued to increase in number. With such development, it is expected that such large numbers should also extend to the media houses and other fields of human endeavour.
It is very worthy therefore for the mass media to champion the course for women employment so as to liberate then from all manner of discriminations, bad practices, widowhood rites and practices, female genital multivation, early marriages trafficking in women and other practices that both affect and discrimination against women.
Owing to the observation, this project is aimed at mass media, their contributions, their problems and their attitudes towards supporting the campaign for women empowerment in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
My main objective for embarking on the study is identify and evaluate the following:
a. The role of the mass media in supporting women empowerment campaign in Nigeria.
b. The contributions so for made by the mass media supporting the campaign for women empowerment.
c. The degree of responsiveness of women to the campaign.
d. The ways of improving the performance of mass media in the campaign for women empowerment.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
I believed that at the end of this project work, the study would be relevant in the following directions:
a. It will help to provide a good understanding of the role of the mass media in supporting the Champaign for women employment in Nigeria.
b. The study will help to expose the powerful influence of the mass media in the campaign for women empowerment.
c. The study will offer useful information towards improving the performance of the mass media.
d. It will expose the need for women empowerment in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the roles of the mass media in supporting women empowerment campaign in Nigeria?
2. Do the mass media contribute adequately towards the campaign for women empowerment in Nigeria ?
3. What factors hinder the performance of the mass media in enhancing women empowerment campaign.?
4. How can the performance of the mass media be improved?
5. Can our women accept their supposed role and help in building the Nigerian society?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS INCLUDING NULL HYPOTHESIS:
H1: The mass media have favourable attitude towards the campaign for women empowerment
H0: The mass media do not have favourable attitude towards women empowerment in Nigeria.
H2: The media contribute positively to the campaign for women empowerment.
H0: The mass media do not contribute positively to the campaign for women empowerment.
H3: Socio – economic, culture and legal constraints hinder the position of women towards the campaign for women empowerment.
H0: Socio – economic, cultural and legal constraints do not hinder the position of women towards the campaign for women empowerment.
H4: The women could help in building and re – shaping the Nigeria society.
H0: The women could not help in building and re – shaping the Nigerian society.
1.7 CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS:
Conceptual means general notion. Operationally means those factors, national and man – made that makes mass media’s position to women empowerment difference.
ASSESSMENT: Conceptually, means the act of checking the amount or value at which something is calculated.
Operationally, means a judgment or opinion about something.
MASS MEDIA: Conceptually means the extended large channels of communication including the newspaper, and magazines, radio, television etc.
Operationally, means large number of both newspapers, magazines, television, radio etc. used for disseminating information.
ROLE: Conceptually, means the part taken by someone in any activity.
Operationally, means the part taken by a person for example in acting etc.
WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: Conceptually means women having the lawful right top do their things.
Operationally, women empower means women having right from discrimination of both sexes.
I conducted my research on the basis of the following assumptions.
a. The mass media are today in the fore – front of women empowerment campaign.
b. That the mass media contribute adequately in the campaign for women empowerment.
c. That certain factors hinder the performance of the mass media in supporting the campaign for women empowerment.
d. That the campaign for women empowerment is a worthy course.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
It is necessary to point out that an in – depth research could not be made because of the theoretical and practical nature of this study. Again, financial constants arising from the lean resource available to facilitate the research had a reaching effect on carrying out an in –depth and comprehensive study on this topic. These problem not withstanding, efforts were made in the direction of giving this topic a good approach. The scope of this is limited to the position, contributions, problems and prospects of media practice as a career with special attention to their support for the campaign for women empowerment.