THE IMPACT OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF THE NIGERIAN YOUTHS: A CASE STUDY OF ESUT STUDENTS, ENUGU.
This study probes the impact which TV. has on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths. It specifically tackles the impact of western TV. programmes on Nigerian university students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among ESUT students Enugu is significantly associated with their perception of Western culture and exposure to western TV. programmes.
The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects is shared by optimistic modernization theory Lerner 1962, Rovers 1964, Schramm 1964) and the later critical perspective of cultural and media imperialism (MCphail 1981, Pltschull 1984, Garbner 1977.
Previous studies by Payne and Peake (1977), Barnette Mcphail (1980) Skinner (1984) have all found western television especially U.S TV. as having levels of influence on the cultural values of viewers in less Developed countries.
The research applies the theory of Acculturation, along with the cultivation of enculturation hypothesis. Defluer and Dennies 1991, Garbner 1977, Morgan 1991). To explain that acculturation of Nigerian youths takes place as a result of exposure to western TV. which influence the perception of TV. reality and alters self image. From the review of related literature, the following hypothesis emerged for testing.
Hi more exposure to TV will tend to load to identification of western TV stars as models.
H2 imitation of the behaviours of TV stars will tend to be higher among those who identify with western TV stars than those who identify with Nigerian/African TV. stars.
H3 students who prefer watching western TV will tend to approve of girls initiating love relationship with men more than those who depend more on TV. for information and entrainment will tend to chose to migrate to western countries more than those who depend more on other media.
Research hypothesis 1, 2, and 3 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method. The testing of hypothesis 4 shows that there are other factors which influence choice of emigration site along with TV. Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.
A study of this nature wouldn’t have been successfully carried out without the contributions of some individuals and corporate bodies. Though, the names of these people who assisted me in one way or the other in seeing to the completion of this study are too numerous to mention, but a few number of them are worthy of mention. They are the management and staff of centre for communication Library Enugu, ESUT Library Enugu, and the Department for International Development (DFID) British High Commission Enugu.
I acknowledged from my pleasure the help I received from my parents Chief and Lolo M.A Nnolum who were best on seeing me graduate, my brothers and sisters among whom are Chinedu, Ndidi, Chika, Anolue, Ijeoma and the baby of the family Ifeyinwa Nnolum. May God bless all of you.
My profound gratitude goes to the man who really is a blessing to humanity, the man who has touched my life and the lives of others in so many ways, the man who observed has made this to know that, no man is perfect:. I am talking about my Head of Department (HOD) Lecturer and my project supervisor Mr. Ben Agbo. Only God can reward you enough. I am not forgetting other lecturers in my department in the person of Mr. Edwin Ude, Mrs. Nkem Feb-Ukozor and others.
Thanks you all.
I also thank Mr. and Mrs. Rapheal Nnolum, Chief and Lolo Edwin Nwizu, Sir and Lady Raphael Uzochukwu for their unflinching support during my course of study. I am also grateful to all my friends and colleagues who have one way or the other made the going easier. They are Gladys, Fred, Harry, Tonia, Emilia etc. Thank you all.
Finally, I pray for God’s blessing on all of you who directly or indirectly contributed to the success of this academic work.
NNOLUM EBELE A.
LIST OF TABLES
1. Preference for media
2. Preference between local, foreign TV programmes
3. Level of Television viewing
4. Degree of use of TV. for news and current affairs and entrainment.
5. cross tabulation of Sex, degree of use of TV for news and entertainment programmes
6. identification with TV stars
7. Cross tabulation of TV stars identification with imitation.
8. Reality of stars to local environment.
9. Influences of western TV. Programmes on dressing.
10. Approval of female students initiating love affair.
11. expected preference of local programmes production quality and quantity are enhanced
12. Cross tabulation of desire to emigrate and choice of emigration site.
13. Cross tabulation of level of exposure and identification of TV. stars.
14. Cross tabulation of choice of stars with imitation scores.
15. Preference for media and approval of female initiating love affair.
16. Cross tabulation of preference on media and choice of emigration site.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page II
Approval page III
List of tables
Table of contents XI
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
The Roots 1
Maintaining the edge 4
Television in Nigeria 10
Background of the study 13
Statement of the research problem 16
Objectives of the study 17
Significance of the study 18
Research questions 20
Research hypothesis 21
Conceptual and operational definition 22
Limitations of the study 25
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Sources of literature 27
2.2 The Review 28
2.3 Summary of literature Review 32
3.1 Research method 47
3.2 Research Design 48
3.3 Measuring instrument 48
3.4 Data collection 49
3.5 Data Analysis 50
3.6 Expected Result 51
4.1 Data analysis 54
4.2 Results 65
4.3 Discussions 71
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 79
5.2 Recommendation for further study 80
Why are we what we are? Third world!
There are two broad competiting paradigms or models of theoretical understanding that seek to explain why some countries are poor and other are wealthy, why some are “first world” and others” Third world”. These broad competiting paradigms are theory of “modernization” and the theory of “imperialism”. Each paradigms has its own “clue concepts” or key explanatory categories” (Hagen 1962).
For modernist theorists the determinant of the social economic situation of any country is the concept of “modern” and its permutation and big categories such as “institutional differentiation” “development” “development”, “nation building”, “economic growth” “advanced industrial societies”, “Westernized” , “backward”, “primitive”, “tribalized” and many more.
On the other hand, those who employ the theory of imperialism have as their concepts such terms as “dependence”, “colonialism”, “liberation”, “Exploitation”, “late capitalist societies” or “societies in the stage of monopoly capitalism”.
The backbone of the theory of modernization has been derived from a convergence of sources in the social sciences in the western societies over a long period of time.
What modernization theorists most often end up with is ethnocentric piratical recipes which admonish the poor societies to imitate them all the way and they would acquire a sudden leap into the 21st century. In order words, join the Calvinistic cruet and you will experience a sudden leap into modernity.
The theory of imperialism on the other hand derives its concepts from Marxist sources. In a nut shell, the wealth and poverty of nations result from the global process of exploitation. This is the situation that Andre Gunder Frank (1969) refers to as the “the development of under development”.
The problem of the poor countries with particular reference to Nigeria is not the lack of technological know how, cultural traits conducive for development, or modern institutions, as is touted by modernists theorists, but that they have been subjected to the exploitation of the international capitalist system and its special imperialist agents, both domestic and alien.
The fundamental conceptual instrumentarium of the critique of imperialism is provided in lenin’s theory of imperialism.
“Imperialism: the highest stage of “capitalism” (1916). The basic pronouncement in the book seems to be that the evils associated with foreign capitalist penetration of the poor countries are the necessary concomitants of capitalism in its present stage.
Nevertheless modernization theorists have also continued to argue that the present influence of the west is not the result of their exploitation of the third world countries. They state that this particular argument gives the poor societies” a moral legitimacy” to demand aid or trade concessions. Sort of “reparation” from their alleged exploiters. However the agree that rich countries depend on poor ones for certain raw materials but that this dependency is declining, and that a great decline in this dependence is expected in view of technology innovations and search for alternative resources nearer home.
Whatever may be the case the fact remains that the fattest profits for developed countries come from their overseas investments. Offiong (1980) argues that it would be wrong to say that the industrialized nations will decrease their dependence on raw materials on the third world nations.
“They will continue to maintain a global policy designed to protect the sources of their crucial raw materials and markets for their finished products”.
1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to TV. Than other media?
2. Do they prefer western TV. Programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes?
3. does exposure to foreign TV programmes affect Nigerian youths attitude to the western nations?
4. In what ways do these attitudes manifest in the behaviours of Nigerian youths.
5. Do Nigerian youths identify more with local or foreign TV. Stars ?
6. Will improvement of local TV./movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local TV. Products
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Hi: More exposure to TV. Will lead to identification of western TV. Stars as models.
Ho: More exposure to TV. Will not lead to identification of western TV stars as models.
H2: Imitation of the behaviours of TV. Stars will tend to be high among those who identify with western TV. Stars than those who identify with Nigerian/African TV. Stars.
Ho: Imitation of the behaviours of TV. Stars will not tend to be higher among those who identify with western TV stars than those who identify with Nigerian/African TV stars.
H3: students who prefer watching western TV will tend to approve of girls initiating love relationship with men more than those who do not.
Ho: Students who prefer watching western TV will not tend to approve of girls initiating love relationship with men more than those who do not.
H4: Those who depend more on TV for international and entrainment will tend to chose to emigrate to western countries more than those who depend more on other media.
H0: those who depend more on TV. For information and entertainment will not tend to close to migrate to western countries more than those who depend more on other media.
1.7 CONCEPTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITON
Conceptual: youth conceptually defined, means young men and women.
Operational: For the purpose of this study youth is defined as students in various universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 16 – d 30.
Conceptual: This include all instrument of communication such as telephones, radio, TV, newspapers etc.
Operational: Media is operationalized in this study to refer to TV. Broadcast which are available to viewers in Nigeria.
iii. Cultural Identity
Conceptual: Cultural identity of any person is the self definition, self perception and self-image of that person as a member of a group exhibiting uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.
Operational: Cultural identity is operationally defined as those commonly shares socio-political interpretations and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigerian.
iv. Cultural dominance:
Conceptual: This refers to nations of neocolonialism based on a policy and practice that have the effect of dominating the culture and affairs of less developed countries.
Operational – Cultural dominance in this study means the conscious and unconscious domination by western TV. media and media systems of Nigeria.
1. That a greater number of Nigeria university students watch TV.
2. That western TV. Programmes have a greater appeal to
Nigerian university students than do locally produces
3. That the programmes contents of western TV. projects symbolic forms of social reality which are consistent with a common perception that western culture, as portrayed on TV is superior to Nigerian culture.
4. That the foreign programmes also projects a common perception that success, in whatever sense, is generated by, represented by is consistent with the symbolic behaviour played out in western TV. Programmes.
5. The western TV. Programmes portray symbolic behaviours that are alien to the national culture values of the Nigerian perple.
6. The western TV. Is having a great acculturation impact on Nigerian university students in particular and on Nigeria youths in general.
1.9 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Media imperialism is served by the TV Industry. TV has enabled developed capitalist nations as America to “no longer grabs territory or rarely, but grabs consciousness, ways of thinking, ways of living” says Jacques Long, the French minister of culture in 1982 (Diome 1982).
Western TV> has more than permeated the cultural consciousness of Nigerian youths. This study therefore examines the data in the light of both connotive and denotive meaning of media imperialism.
However due to the limitations of time and financial resources, I had to delimit the sample to university students in ESUT Enugu. Had it been that time and resources were available similar studies would have been done in other selected schools in the country so as to ensure a more embracing result.
However, this task faces further researches on this topic. Also further studies should make provision for control sample to be selected from a typical rural areas where the use of the medium of television does not exist.