The Effect Of Press Laws On The Nigerian Practising Journalist: A Case Study Of Radio Nigerian Enugu

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Laws have been seen to be virtually indispensable for an unruly society laden with licentiousness as an orientation. Because too much freedom according to John Lucke, one of the finding fathers of libertarianism, stipulates that it could lead to one man being brute to man inconveniencing another.

          The focus remains that the press laws in connection with the contemporary journalistic activity, range from sedition to obscenity to libel, to slander even, to defamation of character, to copy right and so on.

          But suffice it to say that ever person who calls himself a professional journalist, has gone through the of a sound training, and theoretically, has imputed a sound knowledge as regard a cautions adherence of the codified booklet which contains the journalism code of ethics.

          The ethical laws inspire all the ethical comportment which a journalist needs to show his professional epitome which obnoxiously is mandated by a sector of a few influential citizens.

          A vehement be vociferous journalism mogul babatude Jose once said that all the already prevailing laws, added clauses, which is aimed at acquainting the reader (s) of the effects of such press laws on the practicing journalist.




Title page

Approval page

Dedication page

Preface and acknowledgment


Table of content




1.1            Background of the study

1.2            Statement of the research problem

1.3            Objective of the study

1.4            Significance of the study

1.5            Research questions

1.6            Research hypothesis

1.7            Conceptual and operational definitions

1.8            Assumption

1.9            Limitation of the study



Literature review

2.1            Source of literature

2.2            Review of relevant literature

2.3            Summary of literature review




3.1            Research method

3.2            Research d3esign

3.3            Research sample

3.4            Measuring instrument

3.5            Data collection

3.6            Data analysis (modalities)

3.7            Expected results


Data analysis and results

4.1            Data analysis

4.2            Result

4.3            Discussion



Discussion and recommendation for further study

5.1            Discussion of finding

5.2            Recommendation for further study


Questionnaire sample











It is imperative to understand from the onset that the press has been subjected to a nexus of restriction which have restricted the journalists to a corner as regard their expected reportage and performance.

The press has been faced with restriction by way of  as set of codified



vConstitutional encroachments

vObnoxious decrees


vExtra official limitation among a host of other restriction


However, there are certain laws that the practicing Nigerian journalist should adhere to which are his actual professional guidelines toward a better reportage orientate.

          Moreover, such press laws can also be seen as legal limitation of the press because of the N.U.J, N.G.E and even the N.P.A.N backing of these press laws herein.

          Before going deeper one cannot out rightly state that the level of suggestion, and, or adherence to pres laws depend on the level of advancement of country in question. Suffice it state at this juncture that most countries of the world control their press through such laws like




Contempt of court


Invasion of privacy

          And among a host of other press laws. But for the purpose of this study as regard the hazard involved, it will be wise to narrow down only in those aforementioned areas.

          There are other laws as the copyright laws appropriate laws and among other laws.

          But the relevant importance to this project is to focus on the effects of the above mentioned laws among a plethora of other laws on the practicing Nigerian journalists.

          Question thus arises, what psychological orientation of these laws have on the practicing Nigerian journalist. Again, how will the journalist react as regards the press law in Nigeria, the sector within which the journalist is operating?

          The law of libel and slang for instance are quite explicit in their moral orientation while libel deals with written words, slander deals with spoken words.

          In this light, since every human is entitled to a good reputation anything that is written and or spoken in bad light tend to if not true, injure and, or defame such a person image by malicing such a person in the mind of the right thinking people there by denying such a person of friendly intercourse in the society.

          Sedition is yet another press law. According to section 50 of the criminal code in Nigeria, it simply defined a sedition publication as a publication containing intention, that is to bearing into hatred or contempt or to excile disaffection against the governmental functionaries or to incite the masses to get what they want through alternative means other than other lawful avenues that have been tactfully designed by the government to enhance normally.

          Contempt of court on its own simply means that any accused person should be given his right to fair trail vial the non prejudicial influence of the press man, so as not for the press to prejudice the court or the judges against an accused person through in guarded comments by the press

          The law of obscenity deals with the journalistic avoidance of any publication that tends to deprive, and or corrupt those whose minds are vulnerable to such immoral influences.

          Lastly, the copyright law simply refers to the playlarist negativity orientation. A situation in which another journalist who is not inventive enough, now capitalizes on another original work and expand it in its original manner devoid any prior permission.

          In fact, this hold journalist from interfering in another original work. The above mentioned laws are the area that questions will be asked.




The actual research modalities as tied to this study is an attempt to evaluate the effects of press laws on the Nigerian praising journalist and moreover to actually analyze the overall output to the generality of the masses, as regard whether these press laws are favorable or unfavourable to the third world nation called Nigeria.

          Then again, to even go further to briefly, but elaborately define the press laws to clarity issues from the on set as to what they actually entailed.



The objectives of the study are the following viz:


vTo see what the press law entail

vTo relate these press laws to the journalist psychology of writing

vTo see whether the press laws are relevant to the practicing journalistic or not

vTo see whether such press laws can improve the writing output of the Nigerian practicing journalists.

vTo see whether the press laws are obtainable in other parts of the world

vTo see whether press laws should out rightly

vBe scraped or remodified the way it is



The study has become imperative not only to the academic guns, but also to the non –academic sector which perhaps uses its function to the proliferation of contemporary journalism with respect to Nigeria.

          However, it will be of pertinent importance to further examine the actual effects of such press laws on the practicing journalists in order to take a more official look on the chain of information flows and to further investigate the qualitative output of the Nigerian journalist in relation his tendency to indulge in unrefined and qualitative output.


1.5            RESEARCH QUESTION

Some research questions are thus formed in the mind of the researcher viz:


vCan the press laws be said to have a positive or negative effect on the Nigerian practicing journalist?

vCan such press laws yield a more qualitative output in contemporary Nigerian journalism?

vAre the press laws thus relevant to the practicing Nigerian journalist?

vAre advance nation involved in this pres laws orientation or are they peculiar to the Africanized nations

vShould the press laws be encouraged?

vShould the press laws be modified?

vShould the press laws be out rightly removed?



H1: Press laws have a positive effect on practicing Nigerian journalists

H2: Press laws have a negative effect on practicing Nigerian journalists


H2: press laws are relevant on the practicing Nigerian journalists

H0: press laws are not relevant on the practicing Nigerian journalists


H3: press laws yield positive qualitative output in contemporary Nigerian journalism

H0: press laws yield negative qualitative output in contemporary Nigerian journalism


H4: advanced nations are in support of the press laws

H4: advanced nations are not in support of the press laws


H5: press laws should be encouraged as a guide to practicing Nigeria journalist

H5: press laws should not be encouraged as a guide to practicing Nigeria journalist


H6: press laws should be left as they are to suit contemporary Nigerian journalism

H6: press laws should not be left as they are to suit contemporary Nigerian journalism




 In this sub chapter certain word that have a duplicated meaning outside this work have been carefully defined as tied to this research in order to guide the reader against derailed interpretation.

          Some of this difficult words or phrases are as follows viz


Press laws

Press laws are those laws that guide the activities of the press. It also ensure negate of public abuse.



It can be regard as result or outcome of an event


Practicing Nigeria journalist

They are those that embarked on the profession especially those in Nigeria



It is regarded as boundaries between two events


It is the act of drawing general conclusion making a generally statement

NUJ: Nigeria union of journalist

NGE: Nigerian guide of editors

NIJ: Nigerian institute of journalism

NPAN: Newspaper proprietors association of Nigeria


Better reportage orientation

It is the act of good report without unnecessary limits to practicing journalists


Country in question

The country being discussed about


At this juncture

It simply means a particular stage of discussion


Law of sedition

It is a publication that create disaffection against the government functionaries


Law of obscenity

It protect the mind of under aged from immoral influences


Inversion of privacy

It protect individual to live their private life peacefully without being poke nose by the journalists


Contempt of court

It protects an accused of fair trial via the none prejudicial influence of the press man


Written publication that defames persons



Spoke that defames person reputation



Paint an effigy of oneself

It is seen as representation of oneself either in stone or wood



It can be defined as a segment that caves oneself out within a whole


Criminal code

It is seen as laws regulating the activities of criminals


Unguarded comments

It can be regarded as comments that contain most important secret feelings. Person that involves on unguarded comments is said to be careless and indiscreet.


Alternative means

It means something that may be used in a place of something else




Something that is know to be true and genuine



 It is the act of relying on observation and experiment not on theory


Third world continent

They are referred as developing countries



It is the act of rehabilitation that is to put more light into something


Nation state

It is a state that conglomerates many ethnic groups


Quantitative output

It is relatively to quantity

Qualitative output

It is relatively to quality


Contemporary Nigeria journalism

It means the present Nigeria journalism



It is seen as a scheme or undertaking that need to be accomplished


Original work

Work that is still in the state of nature that is work that has not been mutilated


1.8            ASSUMPTION

Before embarking on this study, the researches had some pre envisaged suggestion by way of assumption to this dynamic study which is as follows viz:


vThat press laws exist

vThat Nigeria sis a developing nation and this should not be overlooked

vThat we are referring to only Nigeria practicing journalist

vThat there is a debate and or a cloud of in dubiety over the actual effect of the press laws on the practicing Nigerian journalist

vThat the researcher is aware of existence of many other problems. But have picked on the ones they consider productive to the research output on, an universal basis devoid of pre bias or sentiment.

vThat the researchers now want to ascertain the effect of press law on the practicing Nigeria journalist through an investigation via an authentic empirical and supports



The scope of this study shall pin around the Enugu environment which hopefully shall act as an as cape of the practicing Nigerian journalist, which is perhaps owing to a measured familiarity of the researcher due to the present locality.

          However, in the actual sense in evaluating the effect of press laws on the Nigerian practicing journalist, one should imperatively note that the dynamism of the topic demand a national outlook and affiliated orientation.

          But suffice it to state categorically, at this juncture that it will be wise to fully acquaint the readers of this stud of a full national academic expectation owing to envisaged hazards such as monetary constraint, lack of pertinent data, logistic hazard, expertise laxity and among other hazard which will as confluence, act negatively as empirical impediment to derail the motive of this study, that have been streamline toward attainment.

          However, it is hoped that what ever responses that will be deduced from the respondent, shall not only be seen as being able to constitute a generalization. Of universal acceptance.

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The Effect Of Press Laws On The Nigerian Practising Journalist: A Case Study Of Radio Nigerian Enugu