A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF TELEVISION AND RADIO IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT A CASE STUDY OF FRCN AND NTA
This study is to assess the role of Media in National Development in two government owned media in Nigeria (Television and Radio). In doing this, the two selected media federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria FRCN and Nigeria Television Authority NTA Enugu are surveyed as a case study in which differences were discovered which states that television is needed most than radio in National Development due to some added advantages. That there are some essential and fundamental differences in the role which each medium play in National development. The combination of audio visual gives television greater advantages in role national development. Finally summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations were made at the end.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the research problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the study 6
1.4 Research questions 7
1.5 Research hypotheses 8
1.6 Significant of the study 8
1.7 Definition of terms 9
1.8 Scope and limitations of the study 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 12
2.1 Why television is needed most than radio in national development 19
2.2 Sources of literature 23
2.3 Theoretical framework 24
2.4 Summary of literature review 26
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 29
3.1 Research method 29
3.2 Research design 30
3.3 Research population 31
3.4 Research sample 32
3.5 Sample technique 33
3.6 Measuring instrument 34
3.7 Method of data collection 35
3.8 Method of data analysis 35
3.9 Expected results 36
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULT 39
4.1 Data analysis 39
4.2 Analysis of research question/hypothesis 50
4.3 Discussion of results 55
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 57
5.1 Summary 57
5.2 Conclusion 58
5.3 Recommendation 60
1.9 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication is the process of sending message from one point to another and the content of the message is called information. Information pervades the whole spectrum of life it is a treasure to a nation community and the world at large. Every sphere of life will remain static without well packaged information. Information to a reasonable extent is an asset, a resource, a commodity with social, economic and political consequences. According to (Unoh 1991) cited by (Okoro and Agbo (2003: 1).
Communication as an activity or an experience is so basic to all human affairs and situations that practically, every normal person recognizes its importance, feels its effectiveness, and laments its breakdown, in various human communication settings.
Just as communication is indispensable in human activity, the mass media especially Radio and television are very vital to the mobilization of a large, heterogeneous people for any activity of interest to them and the society at large. For people to be expected to contribute their quota in the achievement of any development programme, they need not just to known about the existence of such programme but to be adequately informed about the nature of the programme, the level of contribution required from them, the merits and demerits of parts of participating or not participating in executing the programmes. The people also need to have opportunity or avenue to reach out their leaders (government) on how they think the society could be bettered in the interest of all. Herein lays the importance of mass media in any society.
The mass media are channels through which ideas, experience, values or message sought are shared with or relayed to a large (mass heterogeneous, scattered audience). Mass media could also be defined as device for moving messages across distance or time to accomplish mass communication. The expression “mass media” has also been used to refer to technical device through which mass communication is achieved. Media fall within two categories – print (newspapers, magazines, books, journal etc) and electronic (radio, television etc) media. They make communication possible from a source to an infinite number of persons.
The electronic media categories are the most prominent and significant to this study. They are younger than the print media being mainly the product of twentieth century, (Okunna 1987: 42) noted “Radio and television appears to be more powerful. It stands out as having the greater power of reaching the diverse people at the Nigeria nation” radio as mechanical medium of communication use sense of sound and hearing to convey its message to the audience. Television is also a mechanical medium of communication use sense of sight and hearing to convey its message to the audience. There are lot of advantages accrue to radio and television on information dissemination. It is a faithful comparison everywhere one found a set to listen to while having a rest, at work in the farm, in market place, driving a car, at home in case of radio. Some of these advantages are also accrue to television. Radio and television are used country wide even in rural areas. Advancement in technology has created unique qualities of the media. They are portable, easily affordable and easily operate even in absence of electricity. This is because mobile phone nowadays has both radio and television facilities which enhance its portability and what have you.
Nigeria is a giant nation strongly backed up by a collective will to develop and forge ahead. In dreams begin responsibility. The responsibility of caring the people of the nation along its developmental journey falls mainly on television especially radio-the media used country wide.
It is believed that Nigeria nation has not less then 250 ethnic groups with different social-cultural backgrounds. This calls for media that can cross boarders, break through all barriers and make developmental impact on the audience as according to Wilber Schram (1964: 41) “for there to be unity and national development, there must be effective communication”. Without information no human relationship or interaction can take place and without human relationship or interaction no national development can take place.
In this study therefore, the researcher has set out to examine the roles played by radio and television programmes in national Development with particular reference to Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Enugu and Radio Nigeria (FRCN), Enugu as a case study.
1.10 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Culture is one of the major problems that hinder radio and television from being consumed by the audience. Nigeria is a multicultural nation and each culture has its perspective on media messages. Some cultures see the media as evil and capable of corrupting their children in such a case the media messages are rarely welcome if not completely unwelcome. This has drastically reduced the listenership and viewing of radio and television programmes respectively.
In addition, failure to programme introduces boredom, thus reducing the viewing and listenership of radio and television prorgammes in other to conquer boredom caused by monitoring; the FRCN and NTA Enugu respectively should introduce varieties in programming.
Another imposing barrier that hinders radio and television programmes is regional and ethnic sentiment. It has reduced radio and television from being “local” to the diverse and heterogeneous Nigeria audience.