THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN RESOURCES TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT ON WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC, ENUGU MAIN BRANCH)
One of the major ways, organizations invest in their work force for greater returns today and even in employees. Training is like sharpening of an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in technology and other social cultural environment of an organization. Productivity is the goal of today competitive business. The major objective of training and development is to increase the efficiency of the employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity. Human resources training and development are necessary for both employees morale and the organization can enhance the value of these assets by investing time and money for their improvement.
In view of the above, the researcher recommends that Union Bank of Nigeria Plc, should take the training of their staff seriously b making sure that uniformity of standard is maintained in all arms of the organization. There should be an accepted adequate management for assessing the employees performance.
Table of contents vii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the study 8
1.4 Significant of the study 10
1.5 Scope of the study 10
1.6 Research questions 11
1.7 Definition of terms 12
2.0 Literature Review 13
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Training is designed to 15
2.3 Importance of training and development 17
2.4 Understanding training and development needs 20
2.5 Discovering training and development needs 20
2.6 Training evaluation 28
2.7 Review of other related literature 30
2.8 Summary of reviewed literature 28
3.0 Methodology 40
3.1 Research design 40
3.2 Areas of study 41
3.3 Population of the study 41
3.4 Sample size and sample procedure 41
3.5 Sample procedure 42
3.6 Instrument for data collection 43
3.7 Validation of the research instrument 43
3.8 Reliability of the instrument 43
3.9 Method of administering of research instrument 44
3.10 Method of data analysis 44
4.0 Presentation of data analysis 46
4.1 Summary of findings 60
Findings, Implications, Recommendations and Conclusion 63
5.1 Implications of result 64
5.2 Recommendations 64
5.3 Conclusions 67
As many invented tools, weapons, clothing, shelter and language, the need for training becomes an essential ingredient in the match to civilization.
Whether our ancestors stumbled upon or invented these facets of civilization of relatively little significance. What is more important is that man has the ability to pass on to others the knowledge and skill gained in mastering circumstances. This was done by deliberated example. Through these devices, the development process called training was developed and when the massage was received by another successful, we say that learning took place and knowledge or skills was transferred. The ninth century ushered in an era of social legislative and with it sizeable changes in the concept of the work’s organization arose.
Through these changes, however we constantly developed emphasis as we see today, quality training of workers, and this has culminated in the support of the Trade Union for any legislation that provides wide range of vocational education. One of the objectives of every organization should be to provide opportunities for its employees to optimized their performance in pursuit of organizational goals. With this end in view, it may be profitable also to help employees feel that the organization cares for them as people, there is more likelihood of their responding willingly to satisfy the need of concern.
When we consider training therefore, we are society any instructional or experimental means to develop person’s behaviour pattern in order to achieve a standard level of performance. These is an essential prerequisite for adequate performance in occupation whatever the job may be. The importance of human resources to any organization whether public or private has long been identified. Organization objectives such as profit maximization, share market and social responsibility cannot be fulfilled without human beings who co-ordinate the activities of the organization using other factors of production. The reorganization of the value of “human capital” to any organization has led to a proposal by experts that people should be classified as assets and to be so recorded in accounting records. Investment in human capital is worthy and necessary expenditure if any organization is to discharge its legal, statutory and social responsibilities to its owners, public and society at large.
The indisputable reason why training and development of employees should be a revolving undertaking is because of change posed by modern technology. Changes take place every minute hour, day etc and the world is faced with an era of technological advancement that can make already required skills obsolete. Training therefore is not retracted to new employees or old employees, but to both, and even to senior management personnel.
Training brightens employees, athletes towards their work. This in turn improves job performance at all levels which facilitates the realization of both individual land organizational objectives.
In Nigeria, government has realized the need to develop human resources since independence in 1960, it was discovered that most top government positions were held by expatriates and that Nigerians had few scientists and Engineers. Government had to set up a manpower.
Board in 1962, following the report of Abbey commission. This was done in order to increase executive “capacity”, more universities and polytechnics were established and the universities grew from one in 1959 to (thirty one) in 1989. Enrolment in the universities grew from 2, 1993 (Two thousand, nine hundred and ninth three) in 1962 to 55,249 (fifty five thousand, two hundred and forty nine) in 1980. Many polytechnics were established by both the federal and state governments in the 1970’s and 198’s. Growth in the number of secondary and primary schools and enrolment into them became very high. Several training institutions such as Industrial Training Funds cetre for Management Development and Administration staff college were set up to accelerate human resources development.
Recently, the federal education through the introduction of 6-3-3-4 programme, the attention and heavy investment b the government over the years o education was also necessitated by realization that al the country” development plans have been frustrated due to lack of “Executive capacity”.
HISTORY AND GROWTH OF BANKING INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
Banking business in Nigeria started in 11892 by African Banking Corporation. The bank was taken over by West Africa, now first bank, in 1894. Barclay bank, now Union Bank was established in 1917. the two expatriate banks dominated the banking scene until 1933, when National Bank of Nigeria was established. Many indigenous banks were established between 1929 and 1952. But most of them failed probably due to poor management and lack of training, apparent from low capitalization and staff competition from foreign owned banks. The period of 1950 – 1986 witnessed the era of a regulation. The central bank of Nigeria was established in 1959 with power to promote and integrate the Nigerian financial system. The central bank of Nigerian encouraged development of money and capital markets. It also encouraged human resources development in the banking industry. Other useful developments within the period that affected human resources development in the banks are:
(a) The companies decree (1968) which made it mandatory for all companies in Nigeria including banks to register locally and be subjected to Nigerian law.
(b) Indigenization decree (1972) which introduced the system of deliberate management.
(c) Acquisition of controlling share in the big expatriate banks. The period of 1986 to date is called the banking boom, era, because of the deregulation of the rapidity with which banks were established due to the deregulation of the economy. The government and private sector now rely on the banks for allocation of human resources.
The rapid growth within the industry and financial system as a whole has over stretched the management cadre of the banks. It has erected rapid uplifment and promotion for man staff of the banks. Such a situation surely called for rapid training and retraining to a high level of competence within the industry.
Before the establishment of central bank in 1959, training of Nigerian Bankers was not taken seriously. There was a gentlemen’s agreement within the foreign owned banks in competition for business and staff. Except in big cities, one could not set offices of two foreign banks in the same town and mobility of staff among them was not allowed. However, the indigenous banks had to snatch some Nigerians from these banks to survive, since they needed some experienced hands is in record that foreign banks in the early part of this century employed Nigerian menials and clerks. Their management and intermediate staff were expatriates. Until the seventies one ceased seeing many white faces as accountants, managers and office executives in banks.
There were no conscious efforts to groom Nigerians for management positions. Infact, the caliber of people employed were either dropouts from schools or school certificate holders with lower grades. So opening a training center locally was union bank plc in 1956. First Bank did not have a local training center until 1975. The Savannah Bank former Bank of America did not have a training center until 1996 even though its first office was opened for business in 1960.
NAL merchant Bank only established a training center in 1988, after 28 years in business. However, some banks are known to have set up training centers within a short time after establishment.