THE EFFECT OF MARGINAL COST ELEMENTS ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA
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Enugu, Nigeria
Nigeria
Enugu State
Nigeria

The Effect Of Marginal Cost Elements On The Financial Performance Of Pharmaceutical Companies In Nigeria

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THE EFFECT OF MARGINAL COST ELEMENTS ON THE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The broad objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of marginal cost elements on financial performance or pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria using GlaxoSmithKline consumers’ plc, May and Baker Nig. Plc, Neimeth international, may and Baker Nig. Plc as case studies. The specific objective however is to examine the impact of cost of sales, cost of research and development and selling and administration expenses on the ROA of the quoted companies. Five years secondary data from the annual report and accounts of the three companies quoted on the Nigeria stock exchange were collected and regression analysis was utilized in the data analysis. The study found a negative and insignificant relationship between cost of sales and ROA. Also, cost of research and development was found a negative and insignificant relationship with the ROA. Finally, selling and administration expenses had a positive but insignificant relationship with ROA. The study recommends that against others, marginal must be minimized to the barest minimum so as to maintain a high level of profitability.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                         ii

Certification Page                                                             iii

Approval page                                                                  iv

Dedication                                                                       v

Acknowledgment                                                             vi

Abstract                                                                           vii

Table of contents                                                             viii

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1      Background of the study                                          1

1.2      Statement of the problem                                        3

1.3      Objectives of the study                                             5

1.4      Research questions                                                  7

1.5      Research hypotheses                                               8

1.6      Significance of the study                                          9

1.7      Scope and limitation of the study                            10

1.8      Definition of terms                                                   12

CHAPTER TWO

Related Literature Review

2.1      Definition of marginal cost                                       14

2.2      The principles of marginal costing                           16

2.3      Marginal Cost Element                                            17

2.4      Marginal costing and decision making                    20

2.5      Financial statements as yardsticks for measuring

financial performance.                                             23

2.5.1Categories of financial statements                           25

2.5.2Purpose of financial statement by business entities 27

2.6      Analysis of financial statements                              27

2.7      Management accounting theory of variable cost              36

2.8      Theory of productivity                                              40

References                                                               47

CHAPTER THREE

Research Design and Methodology

3.1      Research design                                                       48

3.2      Area of study                                                            48

3.3      Population of study                                                  48

3.4      Sample size                                                              48

3.5      Sources of data                                                                48

3.6      Analytical method/technique                                  48

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.1      Analysis of data                                                       52

4.2      Granger causality tests                                            53

4.2.1Analysis of description statistics                              55

4.3      Presentation of analysis result                                 43

4.3.1Analysis of regression result                                    62

4.4 Interpretation of Findings                                          64

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1      Summary of findings                                                       66

5.2      Conclusion                                                              67

5.3      Recommendations                                                   69

Bibliography                                                            71

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.9      BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Recently the common concern to every participant in a market economy is the magnitude at which price of goods are multiplied in recent time in Nigeria. This is in addition to the multiplier effects associated with the process of transacting business in Nigeria for instance as customers complain bitterly of exorbitant prices likewise pharmaceutical companies remain worried about how profitability returns in the face of ever increasing competition. Even low buying power of customer, low capacity utilization and international market that are characterized by differentiated products. As a result customers shift from one product to another in search of value that rarely comes despites their reaches to purchase. They are all confronted with higher price low quality adulteration and at times temporary scarcity in place of value for money objectives they pursue. The management of different companies also seeks for cover everywhere to justify low profitability return while trying to checkmate competition and its resultant effect on financial performance caused by product proliferation and limitations.

To satisfy the above multifarious requirement, pharmaceutical companies are advice to apply marginal cost elements which refer to the value of what is given up in order to produce that additional unit which are practically applied by evaluation of performance, profit planning through calculation of present value (PV) ratio of company to plan the activities in such a way that the profit can be actualized fixation of selling price decision making and cost control which help to increase profitability of a company. Therefore, it cost management is to be there should be added up and be managed by competent hands. Financial performance of a pharmaceutical company uses financial statement analysis as the most objective way to evaluate financial performance.

Financial analysis involves assessing the leverages profitability operational efficiency and solvency for company financial ratios are the principal tools used to conduct the analysis and the challenge knows which ratios to choose from and how to interpret the results.

1.10STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research is primarily carried out by marginal cost elements available to some pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria more also it goes ahead to relate the financial performance of these pharmaceutical companies to direct material direct labor and overhead respectively. Hence the research aims at evaluating financial performance of pharmaceutical companies using the marginal cost element as a yard stick.

Marginal costing is a techniques used in reporting costs and profit of a firm. There should be separation of cost into fixed and variable costs. In marginal costing product cost include variable production cost such has direct material, direct labor, direct production overhead expenses. It ignores fixed cost and semi-variable cost. The separation of cost into fixed and variable cost is difficult, in reality manufacturing can’t take place without plant facilities and equipment hence fixed manufacturing cost are part of the production and should not be excluded.

Marginal costing fail as to take into consideration that in the long run, fixed cost will be part of the total cost of production than of a unit of an item. It is therefore not an appropriate tool in making pricing decision of a firm.

In the preparation of profit and loss account, the use of marginal cost is limited to the internal parties of a firm such as the management. In computing profit for tax purpose, marginal costing is not accepted method, because it does not include all cost used in production process. Therefore in preparation of profit and loss account meant for external uses such as shareholder investors, government and the public, using marginal costing will not present true and fair view of the financial affairs of the firm.

1.11OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of marginal cost element on financial performance pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria using Glaxosmithkline consumers’ plc, may and baker Nigeria plc, Neimeth international as case studies as well as determines its impact with respect to their profitability.

Above all, this study aims at highlighting the various marginal cost elements and it contributions to the effectiveness and efficient running of pharmaceutical companies.

The specific objectives of the study are

1)  To ascertain the relationship between cost of sales and financial performance to pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

2)  To determine the relationship between research and development expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

3)  To determine the relationship between selling and administration expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

1.12RESEARCH QUESTION

The following question would be consider relevant for the study based on the objectives of the study:

1)  What extent is cost of sales related financial performance?

2)  What kind of relationship exists between research and development expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria?

3)  To what extent is selling and administered expense related to financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria?

 

1.13RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

In this research work the researcher formulated a number of research hypothesis in which the study will be based on. The hypothesis used includes null hypothesis “Ho” and alternative hypothesis “Hi”.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between cost of sales and financial performance pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between cost of sales and financial performance pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between research and development expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies.

Hi: There is a significant relationship between research of pharmaceutical companies.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between selling and administration expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

Hi: There is significant relationship between selling and administration expenses and financial performance of pharmaceutical companies in Nigeria.

1.14SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to stimulated the interest of people on the implication of marginal cost on the financial performance of pharmaceutical companies and how it would further serve as a guide or reference for the younger and future researcher who may carryout research investigation in this area of study. It will in no doubt be of no importance to the companies using case studies of Glaxosmithkline consumers plc, may and Baker Nig. Plc, Neimeth international, because the findings will assist the companies in the following areas: increases the company’s profit marginal, help in reduction of marginal costs, help in the proper classification of the marginal cost into variable and fixed costs.

1.15SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

This research work is central on the effect of marginal cost element on the financial performance of pharmaceutical companies specifically Glexosmithkline consumer plc, may and Baker Nigeria plc, and Neimeth international and will endeavor  to show all relevant information that will enhance the actualization of the research objectives put into place. The researcher would have carried out research work into a big and well known company but for the constraints that confronted there she limited her research works to the nearest pharmaceutical company specifically. The researcher was constrained by the following problems.

a)   Money: One of the major factors that contributed to the limited scope of this study with regard to the population sample and distance is lack of fund. This research work was sponsored by the researcher and full time student prudence was the watch word and rather than expand the research it was pronged down to one company only.

b)   Time: The scarcest resources of all the constraints that besieged that researcher are time since the research was carried out at student level. The time used had to be compatible to the demand of other curses and assignments.

c)   Data collection: Another serious problem added to the above is the issue of information disclosure, companies feel relevant assisting researcher by providing adequate information. This under-operative tendency usually keeps researcher to coming to the companies until they are given audience. This statistical and logistical constraints are serious limitation that hinders a work of this type in addition of security of reliable data which might be classified as top secret by the management staff and as such would lead to getting little or no information of importance to the study.

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