AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND ITS IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT
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info@projectng.com

An Investigation Into Design Errors And Its Impact On Initial Cost Of A Construction Project

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO DESIGN ERRORS AND ITS IMPACT ON INITIAL COST OF A CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Abstract

 Constructionandengineeringpractitionershavefounditincreasinglydifficulttolearnfromtheirmistakes,particularlywithregardtotheprevention,identificationand/orcontainmentofdesignerrors.Yet,designerrorshavebeentherootcauseofnumerouscatastrophicaccidentsthathaveresultedinthedeathandinjuryofworkersandmembersofthepublic.Thispaperexaminesandclassifiesthenatureoferroranddesignerrorcausationinconstructionandengineeringprojects.Areviewofthenormativeliteraturerevealedthatdesignerrorsarecausedbyanarrayoffactorsthatcanworkinterdependently.Agenericframeworkisdevelopedthatclassifiesdesignerroraccordingtopeople,theorganization,andprojectispresented.Thepapersuggeststhatpeople,overandaboveorganizationalandprojectmanagementstrategies,havethegreatestpropensitytoreduceerrorsthroughtheprocessofsituatedlearningandknowing.Thisisbecausetheworkingenvironmentprovidedbyanorganizationandtheprocessesusedtodeliverconstructionandengineeringprojectsinfluence thenatureand abilityofpeople toundertaketasks. Consequently,thereis nosinglebut ratheramultitude ofstrategiesthat needtobeadoptedincongruencetoreducedesignerrorssothatsafetyandprojectperformanceareameliorated.

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1Backgroundofthestudy

Practitionerswithintheconstructionindustryhavefounditincreasinglydifficulttolearnfromtheirmistakes,particularly withregard tothe identification andpreventionofdesignerrors(Loveetal.2008). This is because its impact on initial cost of a construction project can be drastic.Evidenceinsupportofthisobservationispresentwithinreportsof“highprofile”repeatederrorincidentsthathavecontributedtothefailureofbuildingsandengineeringinfrastructure in Nigeria(Ransom2008).Itisclearfromthesereportedincidentsthatde-signerrorscontinuetobeamajorcontributortobuildingandengineeringinfrastructurefailuresaswellasprojecttimeandcostoverruns(SunandMeng2009).Itisalsoapparentthataforensicexaminationoftheircausesisthefirststeptodevelopingeffectivepreventionstrategies(Loveetal.2008).

Designerrorsindicate thetotaldesigneffectivenessofaproject  Majordesignquality problemsoccurduringconstructionwhenerrors,omissionsandambiguitiesin plansandspecificationsbecomeevident(DavisandLedbetter,2007).  Oneortwomajorerrorsthatcan becorrectedwithonlycostconsiderationsandlittleeffectontheschedulecanimpact projects.TheprojectsthatreallysufferarethoseWithmanysmallerrors(design,reworkorchangeofscope)which whenfinallyaddedupcausemajorimpactsonthecostandschedule growth. (Tirrough, 2010)researchitwas determinedthat"accuracyofthedesigndocuments"wasthemostcriticalofthecriteriaused intheinitialevaluation ofdesigneffectiveness.Thisaccuracywasfurtherdescribedasthe concernforthefrequencyandimpactoferrorsinthespecificationsanddrawings.  This isduetothefactthatthedrawingsandspecificationsarethemost"readilyidentifiable outputsofthedesignprocess."  Itisevermoreimportantthatthequalitycontrolofdesignsbeaddressedduringtheplanningphaseandcloselymonitoredduringtheconstruction  phase. Sincedesignerrorshaveanimpactontheoutcomeoftheeffectivenessofthecontractor'seffort ontheproject,itisessentialthatallpartiesdeterminewhatthedefinitionshouldbe.  Itisessentialthatalltheprinciplepartiesinvolvedintheprojectgetanupfrontagreement.

Againstthisbackdropa need arose in the researcher to carryout an investigation into design errors and its impact on initial cost of a construction project.

 


1.2  StatementoftheProblem

Misinterpretations,miscalculations,andomissionsareoftenconsideredtobeerroneousacts.Whilesuchactionsarerecognizableasbeingerroneous,definingtheterm“error”isanarduoustask(Kalra2004a).

Designerrorsareaproblematic and have negative impacts on constructionandengineeringprojects.Inparticular,theyhavebeenfoundtocreate unsafeenvironmentswhichcanresultinfatalities,themagnitudeofwhichcansometimesbecatastrophic.Manyoftheerrorsthatoccurcanbepreventedthroughadherencetoproperorganiza-tionalandprojectmanagementpracticesandprovidinganenvironmentforindividualstolearnfromtheirmistakes.Assistingtowardthisend,theliteraturereviewpresentedhasenableddesignerrorstobeclassifiedonthebasisoftheircauses.Thisclassification would enable the finding of lasting solution to the problems.

 

1.3  AimandObjectives ofthestudy

 

Theaimofthestudyisto investigate into the design errors and its impact on initial cost of construction projectandproffersolutions tohowconstructioncostcan beminimized.

Theobjectives ofthestudyareasfollows:

1.  Toidentify design errors and themainfactors affectingconstructioncostinNigeria.

2.     Todeterminetheseverityrankofthefactorsamongstclients,consultantsandcontractors.

3.      Todeterminetheagreementrankingfactorsbetweenclients,consultantsandcontractors.

4.  Toproffersolutions onhowtominimizeconstructioncostin Nigeria.


1.4  ResearchHypotheses

Totestthehypothesis:

1(a).Ho:ContractorsandClientsdonotgenerallyagreeontheseverityrankofthefactors   affectingconstructioncostin Nigeria

1   (b).H1:ContractorsandClientsgenerallyagreeontheseverityrankofthefactorsaffectingconstruction costin Nigeria

2   (a).Ho:ClientsandConsultantsdonotgenerallyagreeontheseverityrankofthefactors affectingconstructioncostin Nigeria

2.   (b)H1:ClientsandConsultantsdonotgenerallyagreeontheseverityrankofthefactors  affectingconstructioncostin Nigeria

3.  (a)Ho:ConsultantsandContractorsdonotgenerallyagreeon theseverityrankofthefactors affectingconstructioncostin Nigeria

3.(b)H1:ConsultantsandContractorsgenerallyagreeon theseverityrankofthefactorsaffectingconstructioncostin Nigeria

1.5  Significance ofthestudy

AnassessmentofthestudywouldenableClients,ContractorsandConsultantsgiveaneconomicapproachtoconstructionworksuchthattheywouldbeabletoidentifythedominatingfactors leadingtohighconstructioncostin Nigeria.

Theapplicationofthesolutionsprofferedtominimizingconstructioncostwouldrestoreclient’sconfidenceinconsultants,reduceinvestmentrisks,andgenerallyboosttheviabilityandsustainabilityoftheindustry


1.6  ScopeandDelimitations

The  scope  of  this  research  is  limited  to  identification  of  essential  factors  affectingconstructioncostandprofferingsolutions onhowtoreduceconstructioncostin Nigeria.ThestudyislimitedtoprojectsintheLagosmetropolisofNigeriabecausethereiseasyaccess of informationin theLagos metropolisbytheresearcher.

Targetrespondentsforthisstudyaretheprincipalactorsintheconstructionindustrynamely:theClient, theConsultantandtheContractor.

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