THE IMPACT OF RELIGIOUS BROADCASTING ON NIGERIA VIEWERS
This research focus on “Impact of Religious Broadcasting in Nigeria” The study aimed at examining the influence the broadcast media have on the audience. To arrive at comprehensive and empirical result ,the survey research method was adopted with item questionnaire tested on 390 respondent which is meant to ascertain the view of the public on this topic. This research work also contain statement of research problem which is what steer the researcher to work on this topic and the entire work was structured in five chapters. Hopefully, this work will educate the masses on the impact religious broadcasting has played on Nigeria audience
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background Of The Study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement Of the Research Problem - - 5
1.3 Objectives Of the Study - - - - - 6
1.4 Significance Of the Study - - - - 6
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - 7
1.6 Hypotheses - - - - - - - 8
1.7 Definition of Terms - - -- - - - -- - 9
1.8 Assumptions - - - - - - - 9
1.9 Scope and Limitation of the Study - - - 10
References - - - - - - - 12
LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - 13
2.1 Sources Of Literature - - - - - 13
2.2 Crisis In Nigerian Religions - - - - 13
2.3 Religion In Nigeria - - - - - - 19
2.4 Islam - - - - - - - - 20
2.5 Christianity - - - - - - - 21
2.6 Definition And Role Of The Media In Society - 22
2.7 The Role Of Church In Evangelization - - 23
2.8 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 26
2.9 Summary Of Literature Review - - - 29
References - - - - - - - 30
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN - - 31
3.1 Research Method - - - - - - 31
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - 31
3.3 Population Of the Study - - - - - 32
3.4 Determination Of Sample Size - - - 33
3.5 Sampling Technique - - - - - 34
3.6 Measuring Instrument - - - - - 36
3.7 Method of Data Collection - - - - 37
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - 37
3.9 Expected Result - - - - - - 38
Reference- - - - - - - - 39
DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS RESULT - 40
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - 40
4.2 Testing Of Hypothesis - - - - - 50
4.3 Discussion Of Result - - - - - 57
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 59
5.1 Summary of Findings - - - - - 59
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 60
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 61
Bibliography - - - - - - - 63
Appendix - -- - - - - - 64
Questionnaire - - - - - - 65
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Numbers of the Registered Voters in the Areas of Coverage - - - - 33
Table 3.2:Proportionate sample Presentation - - 35
Table 4.2.3: Respondents on marital status - 41
Table 4.2.4: Respondents on age Bracket - - 42
Table 4.2.5: Educational Level - - - - 43
TABLE 4.2.6: Respondent base on how often they watch television - - - - - - 43
Table 4.2.7: Response that listen to Radio - - 44
Table 4.2.8: Respondents based on the medium that contributes more to religious awareness45
Table 4.2.9: Respondents based on the media that leave more lastly impression in reference to religious affairs - - - - 46
Table 4.2.10: Respondent Based on the medium which one prefer to use in accessing religious matters - - - - - - 46
Table 4.2.11: Respondents based on how often one depend on radio and television massage to from opinion on religious affairs - 47
Table 4.2.12: Respondent based on what media station provides them with more entertainment 48
Table 4.2.13: Respondents on either radio and television advertisement help them in purchasing of a certain goods and service - - 48
Table 4.2.14: Respondents based on whether the information receive on Radio/Tv enrich ones educational base - - - 49
Table 4.2.15: Respondents based on whether the TV and radio messages encourage - - 51
1.10BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In treating the effect of religious broadcasting on Nigeria audience, we shall continually interchange the concept influence with effect. Though both words are synonym, the word effect is more common in studying communication impact.
Considering the audience dimension we state that there is no broadcasting without an audience. The audience factor is the most important. The audience keeps the media alive, they are heterogeneous in nature.
Broadcasting is a two way communication via telephone, E-mail, tax, satellite etc. It remains predominantly a one-way social phenomenon.
To understand the impact or effect of broadcasting on Nigeria audience, we need to understand it from the context of their social categories and selective capacities. The mass of the Nigerian public are socially a numerous subset. Each subset has its traits, which affect its level of exposure to the media and invariably the extent of the effect of such message on them.
Variably such as age, sex, educational attainment, social economic status, social affiliation all combines individually or in concert to affect the public disposition to broadcast messages. This is where the theories of selective exposure and uses and gratification come into play in shaping audience perception of broadcast message and the gratification they get form it.
The two factors to have in mind when presenting religious programme, is the audience and the medium of conveyance. This factors guides your presentation, and goes beyond ordinary information. The audience with its greater part determines which material will be presented. You have to be familiar with your medium and know the difference between your medium and others. The radio medium is transitory and fleeting and so message have to be brief and concise.
The television medium is more economical to use than the radio because the audience view things for themselves on the screen.
A critical analysis of the radio and television broadcasting media will be essential in examining the effect of religious broadcasting. It will be done with thorough care within the scope of limitation.
In recent time religious groups has imbibed the efficiency of broadcasting as a means of communicating to their members and the society at large in order to disseminate their doctrines. In our country Nigeria, we have three major religious groups. They are, the Islamic religion, Christianity, and traditional religion. They have various segments with different view and doctrines which guides them and cannot be known by an outside without being effectively informed. Information and communication technology have improved our broadcasting media through the use of state of the art electronic digital gadget to reach the world and therefore our religious group has deemed it fit to be the most effective means of reaching the world.
The main purpose of this work is to have an in depth analysis on how effective the broadcasting media has been for religious groups in converting people with force or bias. This is because religions which interwoven with the culture of the people, can be defined as the belief of a group of people in regards of their existence in this world.
Religion frames one’s mind to adhere to the rules and regulation of the society he or she lives in. it helps to nurture the mind and make one a better being through indoctrination.
Broadcasting is one of the most effective means of communication. It has helped religious group to better the society and eliminate crime that has in recent times became the other of the day.
1.11STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The purpose of religious groups is to create a sense of reasoning among the masses and change the world at large. Each individual is governed by his own intuition, the transformation of individuals into a better being is not an easy task and unless brainwashed with doctrines he cannot easily change or adapt to changes. Human beings have animalistic tendency. This makes it even more difficult to predict an individual.
The society at large influences the behavior pattern of individuals and so in corrupt society religious groups finds it difficult to penetrate into the society and defect it. Religion plays a vital role in everyone’s life. To what extent has religion influenced the lives of people through broadcasting media to reach the society? This poises the main problem to the impact of religious broadcasting in our country Nigeria.
1.12OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives and aims of this study is as follows:
1) To determine the impact of the broadcast medium in creating awareness on religious issues for the urban audience
2) To find out, how exposure to television have greater influence on the audience than radio.
3) To analyze whether age can contribute to the media preference of the audience
4) To find out the prospects of using the social status and level of education of an audience to determine hours spent on a medium.
1.13SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
These research stems from the fact that communication is very much at the heart of each religious organization. This study will show and determine how religious broadcasting affects the audience and the way they react to broadcast stimuli.
1) Does radio broadcast create more awareness for the audience on religious issues?
2) Does a television exposure have greater impact on the audience than radio?
3) Does ages contribute to media the impact, the broadcast media has on its the audience?
4) Does education and social status of an audience influence their opinion on issues that is aired on broadcast media?
Hi: Does radio create great awareness on urban audience than radio?
Ho: Television does not create great awareness on urban audience than radio.
H2: Does Television exposure have greater impact on the audience than radio broadcasting.
Ho: Television exposure does not have greater impact on the audience than radio broadcasting.
H3: Does age has direct relationship with the audience opinion on broadcasted issues?
Ho: Age does not have direct relationship with the audience opinion on broadcasted issues.
H4: Does the level of social status and education determine their acceptance of broadcast issues?
Ho: Audience social status and Level of education does not determine their acceptance of broadcast issues.
1.16DEFINITION OF TERMS
The terms or variables inherent in this research topic, which form the core of this study, were defined operationally.
The role, influence, ability and effect something can have on another thing.
To disseminate information simultaneously to different places at the time through audio or visual.
This is the belief or faith people conceive in their mind. Ordinarily, it is connected to worship of God or gods.
The following assumption were
Made to place the study in the right position;
1) Nigeria public is exposed to broadcast content
2) That people who exposed themselves to broadcast content are influenced by such message.
3) That broadcast media has played an indispensable role in the Geld of formal education.
4) That broadcast media helped in fighting for socio-political and economic development.
5) That the world of broadcasting media has contributed immensely in the acquisition of religious knowledge
6) That broadcast of religious message have converted sinners to repent
1.18SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The focus of this study is restricted to electronic media audience of Enugu urban area. Certain factors compelled my researcher to limit this study to four areas in Enugu urban. The factor that thwarted the coverage of other areas includes:
(a) finance - lack of money
(b) Time factor – unavailability of time
(c) Distance – areas not closely related
(d) Transportation – coupled with fuel problem
(e) The suspicious attitude of some respondents
However, the three areas are New Heaven, Gariki, Abakpa Nike, and Independent Layout. These areas were carefully selected to represent other areas of Enugu Urban. These four areas make up the population of study.
John O. Odey (1997: 6), Nigeria Search for Peace and Social Justice, Enugu.
Boniface. N. Azuzu, Communication Strategies in the New Era of Evangelization.
Osuala E.C, (1987: 121 – 122) Introduction to Research Methodology Awka: Africa Feb Publisher Limited.
David Owens and Patrick Hunt, (1985: 3) Understanding the Mass Media I Dublin.