ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH BLOOD INFECTION
Bacteria blood infection (bacteremia) is the presence of viable bacteria and their toxic chemicals in the blood. Blood stream is normally a sterile environment. Therefore the presence of pathogenic organism in the blood is abnormal and can be referred as blood poisoning. Bacteremia occur when species from Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli and many other species swim into the blood stream and releases their toxin which causes many life threatening symptoms in the body. These bacteria organisms invade the blood stream through the body portal of entries such as genital tract, mouth, nose and anus, when these body parts are exposed to contaminated environment and open toilets. They can also find their way into the blood through simple body cut or wounds. The symptoms of bacteremia include fever, headache, increase in body temperature etc. The method adopted for isolation and identification of bacteria blood infection is aseptic blood culture techniques, Gram’s staining and biochemical analysis. Treatment of bacteremia is based on susceptible antibiotics sensitivity test carried after diagnosis. Prevention and control measure is abstinence from contaminated environment and exposure of skin to these organisms.
1.1 Background of the Study
Blood infection is a condition where the blood stream of a human is been infected by pathogenic microorganisms that releases their toxins into the blood stream causing life-threatening and other serious complications. The presence of viable bacteria organisms in the blood is called bacteremia. This is a leading cause of death in most countries especially in rural areas and under developed countries like Nigeria and other African countries (Burton, 1992).
The effects of these organisms causes many complicated illness in people with compromised body immune system and also in people who have undergone surgical operations that may subject them to loss of blood. Bacteria blood infection (bacteremia) is a major cause of death in people living with HIV/Aids and also in anaemic patients (Memmler et al, 1992).
These viable bacteria organisms invade into the blood stream through the simple skin cut or wounds, surgical operation and through the body portal of entry like the anus, nose, mouth and genital tracts. It is noted that un-sterilized syringe and surgical equipments used on patients by health care providers are among the major source of pathogenic organisms the blood stream. These organisms causes urinary tract infection and stomach up-set when they accumulate into these body parts and later found their way into the blood stream through the blood capillaries that supplies blood to these part of the body (Ojukwu, 2002).
Bacteremia may cause no symptoms and resolve without treatment especially in people with strong body immunity.It can also produce fever and other symptoms of infection when they conquer the body immune system in people with suppressed body immune system. In some cases, this blood infection leads to septic shock, a potential life-threatening condition (Ako-Nai et al, 2000).
There are many types of blood infection but the most common type is called sepsis or setpticamia. When referring to the blood infections, the term sepsis and septicaemia are often interchangeable used but the two words are slightly different in their meanings. The term sepsis is a condition where the entire body is involve in a toxic condition of pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins spread from one site of the body to another. While septicaemia is a condition where there are active pathogens present in the blood stream itself. When the pathogens involved in the blood stream are only bacteria, then the condition is known as bacteremia (Azubike and Nwanginieneme, 2002).
Talking of blood infection; sepsis is a serious medical condition caused by overwhelming immune response to infections. Chemicals released into the blood to fight infections triggers widespread of inflammation which may result in organ damage. Blood clotting during sepsis reduces blood flow in the limbs and internal organs, depriving them from nutrients and oxygen. In severe cases, one or more organ may fail or may lead fast drop in blood pressure called septic shock which can lead to failure to several organs such as brain, kidney, liver and lungs causing sudden death (Jawetz, 1989).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Many deaths have been traced to micro organisms associated with blood infections, had it been that the specific organisms involved is known, treatment and prevention would have been easier. The important of this study is therefore to isolate and identify the bacterial that causes blood infection.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this research work is focused on the following
1) To know the organisms responsible for bacteria blood infection.
2) To determine the incidence of invasion of the organisms responsible for bacteria blood infection.
3) To identify the stages at which symptoms of bacteremia manifest in the body.
4) To determine the effect of bacteremia on gender.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) What are the bacteria organisms that are associated with blood infections?
2) What is the incidence of bacteria invasion of the blood stream?
3) At what stage of infection do symptoms manifest in the body?
4) What is the incidence of bacteremia on male and female gender?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work is that it will help the populace to know the bacteria organisms that causes blood infection, their mode of invasion, symptoms method of isolating and identifying them as well as the preventive and treatment measure for each specific bacteria organism.