THE EFFECTS OF MANAGEMENT OF ACCOUNT RECEIVABLES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE WATER COOPERATION)
This research work surreyed the effect of Account Receivable in the management of government parastatals, with particular reference to the Enugu state water coperation this research work endeavoured to probe into where the problems lie. The objective was to find out the effect of these accounts receivables. The financial record of the Enugu state water corporation (ESWC) was obtained to compare its accounts receivables with the total revenue greeted by that paraststal over a given period. It was the opinion of the researcher that since various governments regulate the functions of their parastatals by not allowing full commercialization, those governments should line up to their own obligations by remitting adequate statutory duties of rendering services to the populace.
Table of contents
Title page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents vii
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objectives of these study 3
1.4 Hypothesis 5
1.5 Research question 6
1.6 Significant of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 9
1.8 Limitations of the study 9
1.9 Definition of terms 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The concept of account receivables 11
2.2 The objectives of accounts receivables management 14
2.3 The concept of bad debts 19
2.4 Credit procedures for individual customers 21
2.5 Analysis credit risks 23
2.6 Credit policy 26
2.7 Accounts receivables managements 33
2.8 Summary 35
2.9 Corporate profile 37
3.1 Research design 45
3.2 Area of study 46
3.3 Population of the study 46
3.4 Sampling method 47
3.5 Research instrumentation 49
3.6 Sources of data 49
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation and analysis of data 51
4.2 Test of hypothesis 53
SUMMARY OF FINDING, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Findings 67
5.2 Conclusion 69
5.3 Recommendation 71
LIST OF TABLE
Table 4.1 distribution of questionnaire 53
Table 4.3 Staff respondents 54
Table 4.4 default of payment of water bill 56
Table 4.5 level of service rendered by ESWC 59
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
According to Ajasa (2007), many business organizations in Nigeria have experienced liquidity problem largely because of the effects of the high inflationary rate. This has been necessitated by the various economic measure introduced in the country ranging from auxsterity measure introduced in 1982 to the structural adjustment program and the deregulation of the economy. As a result of these, it then becomes more necessary than ever to get money promptly from trade debtors for the day-to-day operations, because of uncertainty in the fluctuations of prices.
He further suggests that if all trade transactions were to be made on cash basis the companies in Nigeria would hardly do well in terms of sales turnover. This results form the fact that at the time of consumption, the liquidity position of the consumers may be such as not to allow the availability of enough cash to make on- the – spot payments in cash for such goods and services to be consume now and to pay at a later date, resulting in accounts receivable.
According to Bass (2006) accounts receivables represent claims usually stated in terms of a fixed amount arising from the sale of goods, the performance of service, the lending of fund or some type of transactions which establish relationship whereby one party is indebted to another. These claims result from the sale of goods or services and are sometimes neither supported by a written note or secured by specific collaterals. In that case, creditors have no right to lay hands on specific assets.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Despite the indispensability of water to mankind and the amount of investment by state governments, water in urban and some rural areas has been a very scarce commodity yet its consumption rate has not abated.
The issue of water has become a very strong slogan for politicians and they use same in building the political manifestoes. The electorate on the other hand are always respectable to mere promises of better water facilities, there is still an unwillingness to pay bills. Water managers accuse both the consumers and government of deliberate refusal to co-operate in making their dream a reality. Government parastatals most of the time end up with a large amount of debts.
This research therefore looks into the perennial problem of water in Enugu State, with particular reference to Enugu Urban, to find out the effect of accounts receivables make on the performance of the Enugu State water corporation.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study seeks to achieve the following objectives:
· To find out the cause of the irregularities and lack of payment of water bills.
· To find out the reason for the huge amount of debts in the financial statements of the Enugu state water corporation.
· To find out the effect of accounts receivables in the performance of government owned parastatals but with particular reference to the Enugu State water corporation.
· To determine if the guidelines and practices of the Enugu state water corporation, with reference to the management of accounts receivables is in conformity with sound theoretical principles and policies as provided by theoretical framework.
· To recommend workable solutions that might minimize the problems and thereby enhance the effective management of account receivables in most government owned parastatals.
· To make any other suggestions that would lead to the solution of the perennial water scarcity in Enugu State Water Corporation.
1Ho: The level of accounts receivables does not affect the services and operating income of the Enugu state water corporation.
Hoi:The level of accounts receivables does affect the service and operating income of the Enugu State water corporation.
2Ho: The delay or default in the payment of water bills by consumers is NOT connected with the efficiency of services rendered by the Enugu State water corporation.
Hi: The delay or default in the payment of water bills by consumers is connected with the efficiency of services rendered by the Enugu State water corporation.
3Ho: The level of services rendered by Enugu State Water Corporation is NOT a resultant effect of poor management of the accounts receivables.
Hi: the level of services rendered by Enugu State Water Corporation is a resultant effect of poor management of the accounts receivables.
4Ho: An improper working condition does NOT influence the incidence of account receivables.
Hi: An improper working condition does influence the incidence of accounts receivables.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For this research work to be effective, it pleases the researcher to ask the following questions:
1. Do you think that the level of accounts receivable affects the services and operating income of Enugu State Water Corporation?
2. Is the delay or default in the payment of water bills by consumers connected with the efficiency of services rendered by Enugu State water co-operation.
3. Is the level of service rendered by Enugu State water co-operation affected as a result of poor management of account receivables?
4. Does improper working condition influenced the incidence by account receivables?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The incidence of bad debts in government owned companies is quite enormous and it is on the increase. As a result. It becomes really necessary to look into the matter.
As a matter of fact, this debt problem is coming in all fields of commercial endeavours. This suggests that this consequently enhance gross domestic product of the nation.
This work is intended to show the importance of effective and efficient accounts receivables management in the performance of business organizations to all those in charge of credit management incomes. It will signify dangerous effects of improper management of accounts receivables. In addition, the important of consumer awareness interest and perception of debt management will be highlighted. The awareness of the obligation that consumers own to the survival of government owned companies will be created, thus fixing consumers relationship which is ideal for growth and more efficient operations.
In this era of privatization and commercialization of public enterprises, this study will serve as a useful guide to investigations to the extent that it exposes the viability of government owned companies.
The management owned companies will also find this work useful. This is due to the fact that they should also be interested in finding solutions to reduce and eliminate the huge book debt owned through consumers credits. This research work will expose them to ways of achieving the organizational goals.
Finally, apart form the fact that this research will provide a concise inventory or reference materials that will aid the financial manager in credit management, it will also provide a valuable sources of information and serve as a basis for future research study in the libraries of both the department accountancy and that of the institute of management and technology, Enugu.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work covers the credit management policies and practices of the Enugu State Water Corporation with particular reference to the Enugu urban districts. It does not cover the total accounts receivables as prepaid expenses, loans and advances to staff, but is restricted to the consumer accounts receivables usually found in the corporation records as commercial debtors.
This research looks into the activities of the Accounts and Commercial Departments of the Enugu State Water Corporation as regards credit and management practice and policies in ensuring that receivables are kept to a minimum. It also examines the contributions of the customers to the incidence of accounts receivables.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitations of this study are that time and money constraints restricted it to only Enugu Urban Districts. Also, Current Annual performance reports of the Enugu State Water Corporation were not available. Only the audited published accounts for 1992 and 1993 were available and scanty records of 1994/95 which are still unedited.
Finally, because of the limited amount of literature on this topic, only a few authors were taken into consideration in the literature review.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERM
BAD DEBT: This is defined as money owed to you that you can’t collect
DEBT RECOVERY: This is also called a debt settlement, usually takes place, when a debtor is unable to pay the debt and the attempts of the creditors to take back his money have failed.
DEBT CEILING: this is the maximum amount of monies the united state can borrow. The debt ceiling was created under the second liberty bond act of 1917. It is also known as the “Debt Limit” or “Statutory debt limit”
ACCOUNT RECEIVABLES: This is defined as claims, usually stated in terms of a fixed amount of money arising from the sale of goods rendering of services
ACCOUNT RECEIVABLE MANAGEMENT: This is an account which its decision of firm is regarding its overall credit and collection policy, and the evaluation of the individual credit applicants.