Phytochemical analysis and the anti-inflammatory activities of dichloromethane fraction of methhanol extract of crateva adansonii

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PHYTOCHEMICAL_ANALYSIS_AND_THE_ANTI-INFLAMMATORY_ACTIVITIES_OF_DICHLOROMETHANE_FRACTION_OF_METHHANOL_EXTRACT_OF_CRATEVA_ADANSONII

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Inflammation is one of body’s natural ways of protecting itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).
Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is allowed to continue unchecked it may results in neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids.
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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005). Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain and fever are reduced. Some herbs and plants possess anti-inflammatory and they include:
S/No
Common
Name
Botanical
Name
1
Andiroba oil
Carapa
guianensis
It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids that promote skin healing from cuts and may slow growth of skin cells in psoriasis and age spots. It relieves pain and swelling
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2
Alfalfa
Medicago sativa L.
It serves as an oxidant in the blood stream. They are staple of salads and contain nutrient, the leaves hold the best healing potential and contain phytoestrogens that could be beneficial in menopausal and breast feeding women.
3
Aloe Vera Gel
Aloe vera
The leaf juices of the aloe plant have important medicinal uses. It stimulates collagen synthesis and skin regeneration after a burn; it helps heal acne, improve the appearance of wrinkles and hydrate damaged skin.
4
Apple
Malus domestica
Other names include apple cider vinegar, wine vinegar. The best of the medicinal compounds are contained in the apple peel. It helps in relieving arthritis, apple contains malic and tartaric acids, salts of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron.
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Annie’s Remedy (Anniesremedy.com).
Crateva adansonii belonging to the family Capparacea and phylum Magnoliophyta is small tree of forest and
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savanna woodland, often on river-banks, widely distributed in Nigeria and across Africa. The leaves are applied externally to relieve pain in joint, the fresh juice of leaves is used for the relief of ear-ache, eye infection and anodyne in toothache. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma (Sivarajan & Balachandran, 1994).
1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant.
The flowering tree Crateva adansonii is called the sacred garlic pear and temple plant. The tree is sometimes called the spider tree because the showy flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan, Australia, much of south East Asia and several south pacific Islands. It grows in forest and savanna woodland, often on river-banks from Senegal to N Nigeria, and across Africa to Zaire, Tanganyika and Madagascar. The plants common name is amakarode in Igbo, In Yoruba, it is egun-orun and in Hausa, it is ungududu. The tree
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attains approximately 15m height. The trunk is irregular, seldom straight, but is worthy of cultivation as an ornamental for its dense masses of white flowers borne at the ends of all the shoots. In the bush, owing to grass burning which it survives and repeated stripping of its leaves, the tree is often stunted. The wood is soft and yellow and strong-smelling when cut. The leaves are however eaten in soups or mixed with cereals. They are boiled and added to mixture called in Hausa “Kwado” containing a paste of locust beans, Parkia Spp. (Leguminosae Mimisoideae). The Yoruba consumes the leaves as a potherb.
In upper volt they are the ingredient of sauces. To some people the leaves are taken only in time of dearth and they are sold in northern markets. The bark is widely used for stomach-troubles in Nigeria. In Jebel Marra a bark-paste is used as a poultice on swellings.
Crateva adansonii is a decidious plant with three-palmate leaves. The leaves are arranged opposite one
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another. They are elliptic with entire margins. The flowers are pale green. The plants bloom from March to May. The flowers are arranged in racemes. The fruits are berries. It can withstand temperatures above 1oc and 2oc (Burkill, 1985).

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