Investigation Of The Pancreatic Effect Of Buccholzia Coricacea Formulated Diet In Sucrose Fed Pregnant Rats And Their Offspring

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ABSTRACT

Several plants have been used in the treatment of various disorders without scientific basis. The present study examine the pancreatic effect of Buchholzia coriacea formulated diet in sucrose-fed pregnant rats and their offspring. Buchholzia coriacea seeds were obtained from Ogbete main market, Enugu state, identified, dried and grounded using a miller machine. 10% of the seed powder was used to formulate their diet. Thirty (240) adult female and six (6) adult male albino rats (180-250 g) were used in this study. High sucrose (20%) were given via drinking water to animals before, during and after pregnancy. Group A; Control normal was administered distilled water, group B received sucrose + 10% Buchholzia Coriacea formulated diet (BCFD), Group C; untreated rats were administered sucrose and distilled water while Group D received 10% Buchhoiza Coriacea formulated diet (BCFD) only. All animals were sacrificed following overnight fast by anaesthetic does of diethylether and cervical dislocation. Blood samples were obtained through cardiac puncture error of mean. SUC (20%) (untreated) significantly elevated blood  glucose levels (P<0.05); Leptin (P<0.05) and LPO of the pancreas (P<0.05); (when compared with normal control group. However, following treatment with BCFD, the blood glucose level in treated rats were significantly reduced when compared with the untreated group. Interestingly, all offspring showed reduced blood glucose level, leptin level and low MDA level in the pancreas except for the negative control whose offspring showed significant increase (P<0.05) in the paramenters when compared with the normal group. In conclusion, this research suggests that Buchholzia Coriacea seeds has protective effect on the damage induced by high sucrose diet on the pancreas of pregnant rats as well as their offsprings.     

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Approval page                                                                                                                         ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii        

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of contents                                                                                                                    vi

List of figures                                                                                                                         vii

CHAPTER ONE

  1. Introduction                                                                                                                1
    1. Background of the study                                                                                            2
    2. Statement of the problem                                                                                           2
    3. Aim of the study                                                                                                         2         
    4. Objectives of the study                                                                                               2         

CHAPTER TWO

  1. Literaturereview                                                                                                          3
    1. Diabetes mellitus                                                                                                         3
      1. Classification of diabetes mellitus                                                                              3
      2. Symptoms of diabetes mellitus                                                                                   5
      3. Causes or risk factors                                                                                                  6
      4. Prevention                                                                                                                   7
      5. Treatment and management of diabetes mellitus.                                                      7
      6. Complications of diabetes mellitus                                                                             9
    2. Geographical range of buchholozia coricea.                                                               9
    3. Taxanomy of buchholozia coricea                                                                              10
    4. Common names                                                                                                          10
    5. General description of the plant                                                                                 12
    6. Pharmacological active ingredients of

            buchholozia coricea                                                                                                     13

    1. Medicinal application of buchholozia

             Coricea                                                                                                                       13

    1. Sucrose                                                                                                                        14
      1. Hydrolysis of sugar.                                                                                                    15
      2. Synthesis and biosynthesis of sucrose                                                                        15
    2. Maternal malnutrition                                                                                                 16
    3. Pancreas.                                                                                                                     16
    4. Metabolic syndrome                                                                                                   17

2.12.1 Oxidative stress                                                                                                           18

2.12.2 Oxidative stress in metabolic syndrom                                                                        19

Chapter Three

  1. Materials and method                                                                                                 20
    1. Materials                                                                                                                     20
      1. Chemical and reagents                                                                                                20
      2. Equipments                                                                                                                 21
      3. Biological materials                                                                                                     21

3.2. Method                                                                                                                22

3.2.1     Collection of the sample                                                                                            22

3.2.2 Collection of plants material                                                                                          22

3.3 Preparation of sucrose solution                                                                             23

3.4 Study design                                                                                                                     24

3.5 Preparation of the sucrose and b.coricea                                                              24

3.6 Test for glucose                                                                                                                 24

3.6.1 Principle                                                                                                                         25

3.7 Leptin assay procedure                                                                                                     25

3.8 Statistical analysis                                                                                                             27

CHAPTER FOUR

  1. Results                                                                                                                                    28
    1. Blood glucose level                                                                                                     28
    2. Leptin                                                                                                                          29
    3. Lipid peroxidation                                                                                                      30

CHAPTER FIVE

  1. Discussion and conclusion                                                                                          32
    1. Discussion                                                                                                                   32
    2. Conclusion                                                                                                                  33

References                                                                                                                             34       

CHAPTER ONE

    1. INTRODUCTION
    2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Herbal medicine is the oldest form of health care known to mankind. The use of medicinal plant in the treatment of diseases has been in practice since ancient time in different parts of the world especially in Africa. Plants have always been the most vital source of drugs mainly because most plants are autotrophs, and are able to synthesize a large variety of basic biochemical and organic substances such as carbohydrates, protein, terpenes, steroids, alkaloid and glycosides (N’guessanetal.,2009)

The plant kingdom provides a tremendous reservoir of various chemical substances with potential therapeutic properties. Generally, plants which produce constituents having medical values are designated as medicinal plants (Lawrence et al., 2008). In addition, all plants that taste bitter are used as medicine (Barrett, 2009).

Diabetes mellitus is characterize by insufficient blood levels of the hormone insulin. If the blood concentration of insulin is too low, muscle and liver cells do not absorb glucose from the blood which in turn leads to increase levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia), impaired metabolism of fats and proteins, ketosis and possible diabetic coma. (willam, et.al  2009)During the past 12 years, the world health organization has been collecting information on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adult communities worldwide. Within the age range of 30-64 years, diabetes was found to be absent or rare in some traditional communities in Melanesia, East Africa and South America. In communities of Europeanorigin, the prevalence of diabetes were in the range of 3-10% but migrant indian, Chinese and Hispanic American groups were at higher risk (15-20%). (Adetokunbo, et.al.,2003)

A 2008 study completed in U.S. found the number of America women entering pregnancy with pre-exisiting diabetes is increasing. In fact, the rate of diabetes in expectant mothers has more than doubled in the past six years. (Lawrence, et.al.,2008). This is particularly problematic as diabetes raises the risk of complications during pregnancy, as well as increasing the potential for the children of diabetic mothers to become diabetic in the future

    1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Malnutrition is define as the lack of sufficient nutrients, which are essential for the body’s normal functioning. Over time it affects the bodily organs and results in mild to severe medical problems. One of the malnutrition facts is that the number of hungry people is more in the developing countries. If a pregnant woman is malnourished, it is understandable that the baby in the mother’s womb is not receiving enough nutrient.

Pregnant women who have been through malnutrition, deliver babies with low birth weight. Such children are prone to retarded growth, less coordination, poor vision, learning difficulty, and many other diseases. Anemia is one of the malnutrition dises that affects several pregnant women worldwide.

    1. AIM OF THE STUDY

To investigate the effect of high sucrose fed pregnant rats in their offsprings and know their pancreatic effect.  And also the effect of Buccholozia Coriacea

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Induce diabetes by administering sucrose

Administering plants for lowering blood sugar level

Measure the blood and leptin level

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