An Analysis Of Factors Responsible For Low Productivity Of Employees In Government Parastatals (a Study Of National Electric Power Authority, Enugu Zonal Office And Enugu State Water Corporation)

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In the course of this research work, productivity is taken to mean the relationship between the quantity of good produced to the quantity of resources used.  A more fruitful way to understand productivity is to consider it a process.  Thus Brech (1975), was of the view that productivity its action can be loosely thought of as the continuing improvement of the firms management performance in the use of resources and through the operation it is conducting.

However, for the purpose of this research work the researcher highlights those factors responsible for low productivity among the Nigerian workers.  The researcher tends to focus on those mean that will be applied to get workers committed to their work using effective motivational tools to enhance an increase in the productivity level of the Nigerian workers while focusing on the public sectors organization, NEPA, Enugu Zonal Office as the study scope.  If the recommendation, findings are implemented, it will go a long way in helping the employers of labhour especially NEPA to motivate, encourage her employee for greater productivity.


Date were collected from both primary and secondary sources, the analysis of the date was carried out using the statistical method, it was under this study that the researcher brought out a population sizes that he used to determine the basis for the information gather and analyzed.  The test of the data gathered.

The findings of the researcher observed by the help of questionnaires and interviews embarked upon as regards factors responsible for this low productivity are as follows:

i.        The job evaluation system is being carried out in lazy and unfair manner.

ii.       The motivational tools and incentives were not properly provided to workers

which in the right scenes, it tends to be motivating workers into putting their best work but the reverse in the case.

iii.      These is the fear of job security among workers for their work fee of being left redundant or sacked.

iv.      The workers experienced a shortage of their working facilities that ought to have helped them in their productivity.

v.       Working system in the country is not satisfactorily, accepted by the workers

due to their act that purchasing power is not guaranteed.

With this findings the researcher then proffered recommendations that would eliminate these problem or at least reduce it to the barest minimum.

This recommendation tends to be:

(a)     Proper job evaluation so as to remove any biased feelings of evaluation


(b)     Provision of working facilities to aid workers in carrying out their jobs.

(c)      Provision of incentives and fringe benefit that has the ability to motivate


(d)     Training and development needs of workers.

(f)      Maintenance of discipline and work ethics.








Title Page

Approval Page



Table of Contents




1.1     Background of the study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Objective of the Study

1.4            Signification of the Study

1.5            Scope, Limitation and Delimitation

1.6            Reference





2.1            Overview of Labour Productivity

2.2            Attributable factors to Productivity

2.3            Research Method Used

2.4            Reference




3.1     Presentation and analysis

3.2     Analysis of the Data

3.3     Conclusion

3.4     Recommendations

3.5            Reference





1.1                               BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Productivity in public organization as well as in the private sector is simply the relationship between inputs and output.  Inputs are basically resources such as labour, materials and capital.  Outputs are such accomplishments as work done, products distributed or services rendered.  Thu in Nigeria, workers have been experiencing certain problem that has been hindering their productivity level which has adversely affected Gross domestic product.

The government is trying to see that productivity maintains an impressive level created the ministry of Labour, Employment and Productivity, national productivity center etc. in order to help alleviate the problem of Nigeria workers.

In view of these, one may genuinely ask, why is the Nigeria workers inherently characterized by low productivity in spite of the government efforts to improve productivity?

The answer to this disturbing question is difficult but vital and will be discussed extensively as we proceed into the study.  Briefly, we take a short historical background of NEPA which is a service organization in the public sector and researcher decided to choose it as a sample to know the factors responsible for low productivity of employees in government parastatals.

NEPA – the history of our present day NEPA would be in complete if the old public work department of government which in 1876 installed the first Generating Set in Lagos is not mentioned.

In 1895, the preliminary investigation and planning were carried out by the Public Works Department (PWD) in Lagos at a cost of N3,206,000 and it was under the government of Southern Nigeria in 1896 that the sum of N12,000 was allocated for the former location of NEPA Headquarter in Lagos.  Mr. T. Poke was the first Chief Electrical Engineer of this establishment which was known as the Lagos Electricity supply.

Consequently, in 1929, a meter section was established to deal with metering of various consumers.  In the establishment of these bodies there was duplicity of function by the Federal Government.  Both agencies were involved in generating and transmitting electricity one sold to the other which then sell to the public.  The Federal Government decided to merge the two bodies this was done during the budget speech of the then, Head of Military Government, Major General Yakubu Gowon in 1972, he declared that in the interest of affording the nation a well coordinating system of electricity supply, the ECN and the NDA should merge into a body to be known as National Electric Power authority (NEPA).  Thus by Decree No. 24 of 1972, NEPA  was established.



Decree No. 24 of 1972, which established NEPA proclaimed that “it shall be the duty of the authority to develop and maintain an efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of electricity supply for all parts of the Federation or as the authority may direct”.  With this, the organization was established to render services which is in line with aiding management in achieving its objectives and fulfilling its policies.  But there has been certain factors that has posed as problems hindering the provision of adequate service to consumers of electricity supply.  This problem can be sub-divided into two major headings, internal and external factors.


The internal factors are those problems that are contributed by the staff of the organization within their working environment and also those spelt out to staff by management.  They are as follows:

I.       Lack of incentives schemes and fringe benefits.

II.      Environmental factors.

III.     Inadequate manpower utilization and training

IV.     Lack of good management practices.

V.      Inadequate motivation

VI.     Policies in the organization concerning disciplinary measures, promotion



These are faced with workers in the organization depriving them of the ability to meet up to their customers expectation in service rendering.  We now look into the other problem that are externally forge against the workers effective supply of service they are:

i.        Low gas pressure and low water level in the running of the thermal and

hydro power station respectively.


ii.       Indiscriminate bush burning.

iii.      Illegal connections.

iv.      Theft and vandalization of NEPA equipment by unscrupulous persons.

v.       Road construction workers damaging NEPA underground cables.

vi.      Careless and reckless motorists running in NEPA installations, like

transformers.  Sub-stations and even electric poles.

vii.     Inadequate fund for the rehabilitation of old and worn out equipments, or the

procurement of new the need arises.

These were spelt out as what is affecting workers in their bid to carry out their work effectively, thereby weighing down productivity increase in their organization.



Studies has been carried out in Nigeria regrettably, not much has been done in the way of solving the problem facing Nigeria workers which has been detrimental on increased productivity that will in no small way contribute to the development of a developing nation like Nigeria.

Therefore, this research is aimed at treating those problem that are particularly facing workers in public organization ranging from the junior staff to management staff.

In order to foster increased productivity among workers in Nigeria with the help of the study carried out in the National Electric power Authority as a guide, will in no small way enable us to find solutions to the following problems stated below.



The objective of this study is to discover the following:

1.       What ways to be applied to ensure workers commitment to work in order to foster increased productivity.

2.       to investigate how effective the motivational methods, if any has played any role in the bid to increase productivity of workers.

3.       what should be done to increase the overall interest of workers to enhanceproductivity.


4.       To closely look at those factors responsible for low productivity of workers.

5.       To review the current operating standards of management and suggest if

possible any other standard that will be of great help in the task of stepping up productivity.



The result of this research will help to adjust these problems that militates against productivity of workers in the public sector of the economy and thus help to improve the image of the course.

The research will provide solution to low productivity problem to aid increase productivity level of workers which is considered the highest objective of managers of organization.  The research will as well provide for management the needed sound background in theory, practice for implementing organizing and controlling of the affairs of the public sector.


It also will help NEPA Management in dealing with its productivity problems and serve as research material (secondary data) to future works that could be related to the study.



This research gave much consideration to the problems associated with low productivity level can be measured.

Certain constraints were encountered in the course of writing this work among which are time constrains high cost of transportation in distributing and collecting back questionnaires were not returned while some of the ones returned were not properly filled, also some respondents even refused to fill them or failed to answer all aspects of the question.

The interview were conducted to give credence to information, received from the questionnaires.

The study intends covering a public sector National Electric Power Authority (NEPA).




Agbato annual Report of the National Commission on Productivity (March 1972):

Government printing Office.


Brech, E. F. L. (1975):   Principles and Practice of Management.  England,

Longman Group Ltd.


Ejiofor, P. N. (1981):   Management in Nigeria Theories and Issues:  Onitsha,

African Education publishers.

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An Analysis Of Factors Responsible For Low Productivity Of Employees In Government Parastatals