Division Of Labour And Job Specialization As A Techniques For Increasing Productivity (a Case Study Of Vita Foam Company Enugu

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This work has it’s main objective, the determination of industrial growth and development in Enugu North, it is to determine the important of using division of labour and job specialization as a tool for industrial growth and development in vita foam company in Enugu North Local Government Area Enugu State. This study provides better understanding about division of labour and job specialization as how it will help in the growth and development of industrial in Enugu Northern and in Nigeria as a whole. In this study, the ways to grow are development using division of labour and job specialization industrial are revealed. In the methodology, the data use were the primary and secondary data, the instrument for the collection of data was the questionnaire. The scope of the study is limited to Vita Foam industry plc. Sample size was derive by a convenient sample techniques of one manufacturing firm (Vita Foam industry) with eight officials each, which mathematically gave 261 as the population in analyzing the hypothesis, percentage correlation co-efficient was used for testing the three null hypothesis from the analysis of data, it was found out that higher productivity is a function of monetary incentives. And this were in with F.W. Taylor and Abraham investigation of needs. The findings and investigation management ie board of directors is composed of eight manpower excluding the secretary. Recommendations were made on the work and if they are properly implemented they will achieve the attendant results


Title page                                                                         i

Approval page                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                       iii

Acknowledgement                                                           iv

Abstract                                                                          v

Table of contents                                                             vi


INTRODUCTION                                                            1

1.1   Background of the study                                        1

1.2      Statement of the problem                                       3

1.3      Purpose of the study                                               5

1.4      Research question                                                  6

1.5      Research hypothesis                                               6

1.6      Signification of the study                                        7

1.7      Scope of the study                                                   8

1.8      Limitation of the study                                           9

1.9      Definition of terms                                                  10

References                                                                       16


REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                             17

2.1      Introduction                                                            17

2.1.1        Specialization and division of labour                  20

2.2      Historical background of vita foam                        22

2.3      Meaning of division of labour and job specialization 23

2.4      Important of division of labour and job

specialization enhances growth                              24

2.5      Relationship between division of labour,

growth development and job specialization            29

2.6      General division of work in vital industry              32

2.7      Job specialization in vita foam industry                35

2.8      Growth and development in vita foam                   37

2.9      Trading in comparison to division of labour

and job specialization                                             40

2.10  Division of labour and jobs specialization              41

References                                                               43



3.1      Research design and method                          46

3.2      Area of the study                                                    46

3.3      Population of the study                                          46

3.4      Sample and sampling procedures                          48

3.5      Instrument for data collection                                49

3.6      Validation of the instrument                                  49

3.7      Reliability of instrument                                         49

3.8      Method of data collection                                        50

3.9      Method of data analysis                                          51

References                                                               52



4.1      Presentation of data analysis                                 53

4.2      Test of hypothesis                                                   64




DISCUSSION, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS                                                    65

5.1      Discussion of findings (results)                               65

5.2      Implication of the research findings                       67

5.3      Conclusion                                                              68

5.4      Suggestion for further studies                                69

5.5      Recommendation                                                    71

Bibliography                                                           74

Appendix 1                                                              78






If a manager is to improve the work of the organization, Attention must be given to the level of division of labour and job specialization.

The manager must also encourage workers to direct their effort towards the successful attainment of the goals and objective of organization.

To enhance better understanding of the project topic “Division of labour and job specialization as a technique for increasing productivity, it is proper to start with its origin and consequently the modern approaches.

Job specialization, is when an individual, firms, or government concentrate on producing related commodities and exchange them for other which it so not produce. Specialization has taken place in primitive form of division of labour from the study of history, it is know that in the most primitive community every body tired to be self sufficient. Each persons provide whatever he needed but as the population grew, life become a little more difficult.

Nature was unable to provide everything an individual wanted in a particular geographical region, it then become necessary for each individual to engage in a particular activity in which he can undertake. It become necessary for him to produce more of what he could, so as to exchange the extra quantity for what he needed but which he was enable to produce.

However, there is a typical form of division of labour and job specialization in the modern rural community.

In the modern world, the origin of division of labour dates back to the period of industrial revolution with the change in the production methods operations in industries were split up to different as people stated to specialized in different aspects of the production process. With this commodity, the production of a single commodity necessitated the cooperation of many individual who specialized in different aspects of production processes. This production brought about increases in output Adam Smith identified this early as 17760 in his book called “Engineering into the wealth of National” Published in 1776. His visit to a pin making industry, he discovered that as a result of division of labour, the out put of the industry increase by more then 200%.

Finally modern approach of division of labour is about the effectiveness of employers of labour to harness all the availed of resource at their disposal to the attainment of qualitative provision of goal and services.



Perhaps, over the years the most prominent reason for industries undergoing poor industrial development is due to inadequate attention given to division of labour and job specialization. This country is blesses with natural resources both human and material, yet we remain under develop. Now it is time to ask, division of labour and job specialization can’t we practice them in our various our industries, communities etc. Why can’t our industries change its industrial status through this techqniues? This researcher opinion is stated below since the concept of division of labour data back to 1776 when Adam Smith has a visit to a pin making industry, there was an increase in the production by over 200%.

Similarly, vita foam industry a firm that practices division of labour and specialization in foam making in Nigeria. In the years 2003, its annual turnover was N3887 million. This is because the management segregates duties. The company which opened in 1963 Ikeja Lagos is now having five factory location and seven main distribution channels through out the federation. This growth and development was as a result of effective divisionand proper management. From the above discussion tool can be use to attain industrial development in our industries as a whole. Bout the critical issue is how this position change will occur.



Apart from knowing the extent of mass production and industry, there are several other purpose of this study, they are:

To study the activities of vita foam industry. To understand the different product and bye product. To know why vita foam industry’s products of high quality when compared with other industries engaged in related goods and services. To know the extent of application of division of labour and specialization in vita foam industry. To know the extent of recommendation in areas where the company has short fall in its use of labour services.



Several questions were formulated to enable the researcher form an opinion for instance in product are:

1.          How does managers of vita foam use the techniques for division of labour and job specialization in their industry production, purchase sales and personnel management.

2.          How dose the vita foam industry source their raw material and personnel.

3.          How does managers of vita foam keep close relationship with their workers.

4.          How does management of vita foam perform up to the anticipated level of production.



The hypothesis for this research work formulated after through and careful review of work that are directly or indirectly related to the subject matter. The hypothesis for this research work are as follows:

i.            Industry response to division of labour and job specialization to the growth and development of the industry is not high. Industry response to division of labour and job specialization to the growth and development of the industry in high.

ii.          Communication among workers in organization is not adequate. Communication among workers in organization is adequate.

iii.        Business organization Nigerian do not lay adequate emphasis on public relations. Business organization in Nigeria lay adequate emphasis on public relations.



This project provides a beneficiary insight into the nature and division of labour and job specialization which inflationary pressure into proper specialization into companies, that help as a tool for industry growth and development.

This study also will be of immense benefit to other organization (profit and non-profit making which insight in the time past double the effectiveness of job specialization and division of labour in inflationary period.

The society at large will also benefit from this project, the federal, state and local government in particular who continually seek for ways to stabilize it under taking as critical review of this study, this project provide guide lines and means into division of labour and job specialization for the development and growth of industries around.



Specially the scope of this study (work) is limited to vita foam industry plc.



In this study the research intended to investigate the contribution of division of labour and job specialization in vita foam level or degree of adoption of the system.


i.            Finance: Because of financial predicament, I could visit all the steel, concentrated on Enugu North.

ii.         Attitudes of respondent: On the side of the workers to wards questionnaires and during data collecting are nothing to written on because of limited nature of the study and press academic activities on the side and side of the researcher.

iii.       Time. Apart from the normal academic work, theme were the related classroom work that engages the researcher in partial fulfillment of relevant courses, the time constraints is the principle budget fact or the limiting factor of this research inadequate time therefore had primary affect on this research and limited if accordingly.



Division of labour: Breaking down of production process into difference stages so as to enable each person partake in production line, to perform and specialized work he knows best. Job specialization: When an individual firms or government concentrate on producing related commodities and exchange them for others in which it do not produce.

Industrial growth: This can be defined as a repaid and sustained raise in out put with low and efficient input industrial development: Overall trends or process in which out put transformation are achieved with references to or significant degree of industrial growth.

Firm: An arm of industry engaged in production.

Formulation: Series of questionnaire prepared in order to form an opinion.

Scope: The extent and sample size use in the study.

Purpose of study: The reason why the researcher understake such project work.

Literature Review: Making reference to the study have traced.

Company corporate policy: The incorporation clause company of the company.

Company profile: Brief story about history growth development and project of the company.

Reports of director; Statement enclosed in the annual report stating whether on their opinion the asset and liabilities shows true and fair view of incomes statement.

Five years financial summary: As the name implies show in brief with competitively figures, the five years financial statement.

Cash flow statement: Indicated the sources and application of found.

Statement of value added: The extra wealth created by a business entity in cause of its effort to provide goods and services.

Accounting policy: It means accounting rules and concept being adopted by the company in dealing with its records and accounts.

Share holders information: It means such vital information relation to liquidity of the company profitability, dividends and returns capital employ as would enable them make further forecast. Process, and his grated surprise upwards of four thousand prinms of a middle size were made. Those ten persons therefore, could make among them upwards of forty eighty thousand pins in a day. Each person, therefore pins in a day, instead of twenty in a day, if one man undertake the process.

From the above, over time he concludes the divisions of labour. Increase the scale of production seven times, avoids duplication of tools and enhances skill and specialization.

In nature, God demons trite division of labour. He created man and made him to cater for family breads while woman was changed for looking after home and children or chill nursing.

At present, division of labour skill bonds tooth in individuals firm, government and between nations and such therefore, this development calls for exchange and specialization.

Peter Drucker also in his management teat in trying to explain the place of division of labour and job specialization state that “every body understands his own task. The work in the company are structured in a manner that every body what is his duty. The individual operations have to be brought together into a process of production.

According to him it will enable the organization to ascertain what area that the company requires excellence.


Victor Niederhoffer: IN has analysis has the following to say. “I have been considering the benefits of society and the individual from the division of labour. The separation of a job up into parts usually performed by different individuals. The division of labour is common in our society and so such comes from it, that we often takes its benefits for granted and forget about the harms from not following it.

Different scholars has wrote on the division of labour and job specialization. The division of labour is usually associated with the contribution of Adam Smith in the wealth of nations where he states that its is the man entire that is responsible for he wealth of societies. He went further to analyses how division of labour and job specialization can work to enhance growth in a company a pin factory. He show how the division of labour enables each labour to produce 240 times as much as each working separation. One man draws out the wire, another straightens it a third cults it, a further points it, a fifth grinds it etc and the important business.


Onuoha, B.C. (2001) A Hand Book for Successful Management of Organization; Okigwe lose publication P/H in conjunction with Avenue Global Publication.


Banjoke, S.O. (2002) Techniques of Production Management; Lagos; development Press Limited.


Flippo, B.E. (2004) Personnel Management Japan Megra Hill Book Company Published Nigeria P/H University of Port Harcourt Press.


Gareth, R.J and Jennifer, M.G. (2002) Contemporary Management Third. Edition; Irwin Published McGraw Hill.


Laurice, J.M. (2007) Management and Organization behaviour, forth Edition; New York:  McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.


Randall, B. Dunham (2003) Organizational behaviour People and Process in Management work and motivation New York: McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.


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Division Of Labour And Job Specialization As A Techniques For Increasing Productivity