MANAGEMENT OF STRESS AMONG FEMALE MANAGERS
The topic stress has come into being since the creation of man. However, the activity of man in organization seems to be the cause of his problem as want at times pressure or urgency by trying to engage in complex and difference task. The primary data would be the information gotten by researcher when she, the researcher conducted an oral interview and researched questionnaire contribution to officials or department heads of Power Holding Company of Nigeria based on research questionnaire namely: Section A” whether organizational defective has any influence on female managers stress and section B” whether female managers individuals problems contributed into stress and is work load a cause of stress in Power Holding Company of Nigeria (All those would form part of the proved hypothesis assumption. Secondary data would be gotten from human relations at works such as: a. Managers evaluation reports. b. Managers social status. c. Managers safely measures. To know how a female manager uses his annual leave. However, female managers are inexperienced in term of using their leisure time appropriate. This is due to as a result of not being aware of “Work Bridge” which normally results to defective in manager’s health in using leisure time to complete part of his official job. Also the researcher would look into the problem of planning to see if the female managers inability to plan ahead is also one of the resultant problem of stress. Based on these findings, the research would be able to know where female managers were best oriented through (training) as whatever job they found themselves. There is enough time, and other relaxation scheme. Also there is recreational programme as off duty, vocation, medical check-up, leave allowance and regular exercise as a means to ease lesion and from the above findings were recommendations made.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Certification page ii
Table of contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the study 5
1.4 Research questions 6
1.5 Research hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the study 7
1.7 Scope of the study 9
1.8 Limitation of the study 9
1.9 Definition of terms 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13
2.1 Historical framework of the study 14
2.2 Theoretical foundation 15
2.3 Academic review 35
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 39
3.1 Research design 39
3.2 Population of the study 40
3.3 Sampling design procedures and determination of
sample size 40
3.4 Questionnaire design, distribution and collection
of response 42
3.5 Procedure for data processing 43
3.6 Limitation of research method 43
DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS 46
4.1 Data presentation 46
4.2 Hypothesis 55
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND
5.1 Summary of findings 61
5.2 Recommendations 63
5.3 Conclusion 65
5.4 Implications of the research findings 65
Appendix I 69
Appendix II 70
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Life in our modern society is generally not without stress. Stressful, experienced have become parts and parcel of living in contemporary society in almost all human endeavour. Human beings do unavoidably go through some element of stress, as a result of wants of things through pressure or urgency by trying to engage in complex and different problems.
Stress occupied the prominent position in the psychological and economic life of people especially women, therefore, it is seen as a disruption of human resources management as factor that cannot be discouraged or rather over looked.
The researcher considered the congestive role and impact this stress has generated to employees (female managers) which it renders in terms of contract, the employer’s interest are merely focused in terms of contract, the employer.
Interests are merely focused on how to maximize profit through increase in volume of sales, reduce costs of labour and through other pleasures to reduce cost as to achieve the organizational goal.
However, the failure or ignorance of this would be for employer to check the emotions and condition of service, which creates more problem than expected but fails to realize that female managers are overused as a result of workhead while some are raised by frustration in trying to satisfy one’s duty or the other and these frustrations are most manifested in their mood as anxiety, anger, dejected, dehumanization and defloration. These ill-feelings give a longer ray to cause trouble (stress) to most female managers. On this note, I emphasis that stress management is very important in checking this ugly trend.
Both private and public business managers stand the risk to acquire stress as a result of their personality trait which formed part of this research study, to know how it contributed to stress and how it will be resolved. The business organization under study is Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The problems could be stated in different forms as follows:
It is not questionable to say that female managers in business organizations in Nigeria find themselves in psychological conflict or road backs that are from “frying pan to fire” situations that are choice situations these situation results to stress and frustration. It is evident that factors from the environment: external and internal to his work place influence his position making it precarious and difficult. She is confused. Job insecurity conflict with organization work demand information over load pressure to conform due to high competition for faulty work design stunted expectations on the job are among factors causing the difficult position of the female mangers. Also included one individual conflict arising from family demand middle age crisis unrewarded ambition economy condition such as Tenison is causing a difficult position for the female managers. The result from such a precarious situation included emotional disorders, absenteeism, defensive behaviours as projections and rationalization, psychosomatic reaction and total stop of work.
The constrained influence experience when these variables impede her taste for work and debilitating negative feelings, characterized into lack of enthusiasm, excitement, joy, physical and psychological fatigue for work.
There is a problem arising from the failure of our Nigerian business managers. To recognize these, it is one thing to discover causes and another to find workable solutions to them.
The consequence of stress when not checked cannot be over-emphasized.
The ultimate effect negates the tendencies of motivation productivity and reasonable satisfaction in a job. An unmotivated manager is like a motor vehicle without engine. She cannot achieve both personal and organizational goal or expectations. It is this problem and finding possible solutions and recommendation that from the premise for this study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
i. To study and explore an avenue to improve the social, psychological and welfare of female managers.
ii. To ensure that there is smooth running of affairs and activities of female managers in every part of the organization without burden of work load.
iii. To assist the female managers who are stress prone on how to improve their condition.
iv. To educate generally both present and future female managers on dangers of stress.
v. To remind the decision takers or top management officials to desist from any managerial practice that would lead managers into stress.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. Do small and big business managers undergo studies relating to workers improvement on social, psychological and welfare of women managers?
ii. Is it true that understanding of manager’s background will assist in achieving effective use of human resources management without stress?
iii. How can female managers who are stress-prone be assisted to improve their condition?
iv. To avoid dangers of stress, how can future female managers be educated?
v. How can top management officials desist from any managerial practice that would lead managers into stress?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Stress does not improve the social, psychological and welfare of female managers
Hi: Stress improve the social, psychological and welfare of female managers
Ho: Understanding manager’s background will not assist in achieving effective use of human resources management without stress.
Hi: Understanding manager’s background will assist in achieving effective use of human resources management without stress
Ho: Female managers who are stress-prone cannot be assisted to improve their condition.
Hi: Female managers who are stress-prone can be assisted to improve their condition.
Ho: Future female managers cannot be educated to avoid dangers of stress.
Hi: Future female managers can be educated to avoid dangers of stress.
Ho: Avoidance of top management officials from managerial practice cannot stop female managers falling into stress.
Hi: Avoidance of top management officials from managerial practice can stop female managers falling into stress.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is geared towards curbing the ignorance of private and public employees in Enugu Metropolis to redirect and lay emphasis on the effective method of utilizing manpower without exposing these female managers to stresses hence the application of the managements technique as an indispensable and integrated parts of any business outfit. The research intends to recommend in a broad and elaborate manner three simple techniques of management that will be useful to the female managers. The researcher tries to simplify these techniques of management to a layman’s understanding on how to apply or utilize manpower without exposing them to danger.
As an educative approach to educate female managers who are to start up business by knowing how to use workers without overloading them or causing ill-feeling that generates stress.
Existing employers are bound to benefit immensely from this study being acquainted with various procedures necessary for proper and adequate management techniques. Definitely, the impacts of the study will go a long way in exposing and correcting the problems at hand.