CONSTRUCTION OF A FLUIDZED BED REACTOR
The project is the construction of fluidised bed reactor. After a detailed research mild steel was chosen as the material of construction based on its inherent properties. The construction process entitles the marketing out of the sheet to the specified dimensions. This was followed by center punching and cutting. The sheets are then joined together after rolling by welding. Finally, surface treatment like painting was carried out to give it a brighter colour and durable property. The dimension are:
Area of upper Nozzle = 4.56m2
Weir length of the nozzle = 0.16m
Area of upper frustrum = 4.36m2
Area of cylinder/vessel = 47.03m2
Weir length of cylinder/vessel = 0.29m
Area of the lower nozzle = 4.56m2
Weir length of lower nozzle = 0.31m
Area of the lower frustrum = 4.35m2
Radius of the perforated bed = 0.15m
Diameter of the perforation = 0.0251mm
Ration of length to Diameter is 2.1
The heat transfer coefficient of the material is 200w/m20C
The reactor constructed is a type of reactor that can be use to carry out a variety of multiphase chemical reaction example cracking of petroleum
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - i
Letter of transmittal - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of contents - - - - - - - vii
Nomenclature - - - - - - - - xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - 2
1.3 Purpose/Aims of the study - - - - 2
1.4 Scope and limitation of the study - - - 3
1.5 Method of construction of the study - - 5
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Reactor - - - - - - - - 8
2.2 Classification of reactor - - - - - 9
2.2.1 Reactor types - - - - - - 9
2.2.2 Principle type of reactor - - - - 10
2.2.3 Homogenous and hetrogenous reactor - - 10
2.2.4 Mode of operation - - - - - - 12
2.2.5 Reactor geometry (type) - - - - 13
2.3 Fluidised bed reactor - - - - - 14
2.3.1 Basic principle of fluidized bed - - - 19
2.3.2 Design procedure - - - - - - 20
2.3.3 Fluidised bed reactor for mixing gas - - 22
2.4 Fluidisation - - - - - - - 24
2.5 Mode of operation of fluidised bed reactor - 26
2.6 Advantages of fluidized bed reactor - - 28
2.7 Disadvantages of fluidised bed reactor - - 29
2.8 Uses of fluidized bed reactor. - - - - 32
CHAPTER THREE: SELECTION OF MATERIAL
3.1 Engineering materials - - - - - 34
3.1.1 Classification of engineering material - - 34
3.1.2 Metals and alloys - - - - - - 36
3.1.3 Ceramic and organic polymer - - - 36
3.1.4 Organic materials - - - - - - 36
3.1.5 Inorganic materials - - - - - 36
3.1.6 Biological materials - - - - - 36
3.1.7 Biomaterial - - - - - - - 36
3.1.8 Advance material - - - - - - 37
3.1.9 General properties of engineering materials - 37
3.2 Material selected - - - - - - 43
3.21 Factors considered for the selected of material 44
3.22 Reason for the material selected - - - 45
CHAPTER FOUR: CONSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURE
4.1 Tools and materials used - - - - 47
4.2 Steps of fabrication process - - - - 47
4.3 Precaution taken during fabrication - - 49
5.0 Discussion - - - - - - - 51
5.1 Conclusion - - - - - - - 53
5.2 Recommendation - - - - - - 54
REFERENCES - - - - - - 56
= Pie ca constant with value of 22/7
R = Radius of the cylinder/vessels (in inches)
H = Height of a cylinder/vessel
L = Length of a rectangular plate
W = Width of the rectangular plate used
R2 = Radiius of the upper and lower nozzle
H2 = Height of the upper and lower nozzle
L2 = Length of the rectangular of plate used
A = The length/diameter of the upper/circle
b = The length/diameter of the upper length
C = Length/diameter of the lower length/circle of the
d = Slight weight of the frustrum
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Fludised bed reactors are a relatively new tool in the chemical engineering field. The first Fludised bed gas generator was develop by fritz winkler in Germany in the 1920s one of the fisrt United States Fludised bed reactors used in the petroleum industry was the catalytic cracking unit, created by Baton Ronge, LA in 1942 by the standard oil company of New Jersy (now Exxon mobil). This Fludised bed reactor and many to follow were developed for the oil and petrochemical industries. Here catalyst were used to reduce petroleum to simpler process known as craking. The invention of this technology made it possible to significantly increase the production of various fuels in the United States.
Today Fludised bed reactors are still used to produce gasoline and other fuels, along with many other chemical many industrially produced polymers are made using Fluidized bed reactor technology, such as rubber, vinyl chloride, polyethylene, and styrene various utilities also use Fluidized bed reactor’s for coal gasification, nuclear power plants, and water treatment and waste treatment settings. Used in these application, Fluidised bed reactors allow for a clearer, more efficient process than previous standard reactor technology.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The statement of problem is to construct a Fluidised bed reactor which can be used in the pilot plant and in industries.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to construct Fluidised bed reactor and as well learn its operational functionality. It is a construction of a device where reactions take place.
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.4.1 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this work provides the method of constructing a Fluidised bed reactor and its mode of operation. It is also provides for various application of Fluidised bed reactor, its uses advantages and disadvantages. The following pages will provide information that will prove that reactor. Design involves all the basic principles of chemical engineering with addition of chemical kinetics mass transfer, heat transfer and fluid flow are all concerned and complication arise when, as so often in the case, interaction between these transfer processes and the reaction itself.
1.4.2 THE LIMITATIONS
In the course of construction are the cost of material, material specifications, availability of the specified material.
A. THE COST
Cost is the main problem encountered while constructing any equipment because this determines the quantity of materials and equipment (reactor). And it is also depend on the economic of the producer or individual in the sense that the more financially buoyancy is, the higher quality of reactor to be produced or constructed and vice versa. And this also determined the effectiveness and the efficiency of the reactor.
B. MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
This is also determined the quality of reactor constructed since this depend on the type of material used. In selecting their material, one to put into consideration the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the material such as the density, tensile strength, chemical stability, corrosion free property, susceptibility etc. These determine the duration of the machine as well as its efficiency.
C. AVAILABILITY OF THE SPECIFIED MATERIALS
One, after considering the problems above have to consider also the availability of the material specified because the invariability of the one specified material will lead to the chosen of the
METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION
In the construction of fluidised bed reactor the following process were carried out
1) Sourcing/Procurement: The length and breath of the material was ascertain before purchase.
2) Preliminary treatment: The treatment was done according to individual component of the reactor respect to their dimensions.
3) Marketing out: This is a process of using instrument to represent the dimension of the component for cutting out of the unwanted part.
4) Cutting: Using instrument to cut out already marked out part.
5) Drilling: After measuring the angle with divider and compass, the plate to be used in construction of perforated beds were drilled using 3mm diameter drill and electric machines.
6) Folding and welding: The component of equipment were folded according to the required shape. All the folded contacts were also welded together using electric welding machine and electrodes to figure the shape of fluidized bed reactor.
7) Filling: This is a process of removing blunt part of the component to make it smooth for effective handling.
8) Spraying: To prevent the surface material from rusting after construction due to oxidation which might lead to corrosion of the material the surface of the material was sprayed with metallic spray or paint.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is hoped that the result of this study will serve as tool for helping users of fluidized bed reactor to have an effective new look at what the modern fluidized bed reactor is like. Also the study will as well created new modern technology that will be easier to use. Its study will enable chemical engineers to design better, more efficient reactors that may effectively deal with the current disadvantages of the technology and expand the fluidized bed reactor use.