Phytochemical Studies Of Cyperus Esculentus Carissa Spinarum Melilotus Officinalis Rhus Glutinosa And Rhus Natalensis

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In this study, the essential oils obtained from the rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus L. andrnthe roots of Carissa spinarum Linn. together with medicinal smoke obtained from burntrnroots of Carissa spinarum were analyzed by GC-MS. The major components of thernessential oil of Cyperus esculentus were pinocarveol (11.42%), humulene epoxide IIrn(10.18%), caryophyllene oxide (9.38%) and β-pinene (8.95%). On the other hand, thernessential oil obtained from the roots of Carissa spinarum was predominantly 2-rnhydroxyacetophenone (16, 82.97%). The dominant components of the n-hexane- andrnMeOH-soluble fractions of the smoke derived from the roots of Carissa spinarum werernfound to be 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 2-methoxyphenol and 2-hydroxyacetophenone. Thernradical scavenging activities of the EtOAc extract of the rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus,rnthe MeOH-soluble fraction of the smoke derived from the roots of Carissa spinarum, thernMeOH extract of the seeds of Melilotus officinalis and the EtOAc extracts of the freshrnleaves of Rhus glutinosa and Rhus natalensis were also evaluated using therndiphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The smoke derived from the roots of Carissarnspinarum and the MeOH-soluble fraction of the seeds of M. officinalis showed 88.48 ±rn0.31% and 26.35 ± 0.54% DPPH inhibition at concentration of 50.00 μg/mL, respectively.rnOn the other hand, the EtOAc-soluble fractions of the rhizomes of Cyperus esculentus andrnIIIrnthe leaves of R. glutinosa and R. natalensis reduced DPPH radical by 24.53 ± 0.36%, 94.89rn± 0.10% and 94.94 ± 0.29% at 50.00 μg/mL, respectively. At the same concentration,rnstandard ascorbic acid (a known antioxidant) scavenged the DPPH radical by 96.29 ±rn0.06%. The seed fatty acid composition of M. officinalis was determined in this study byrnGC-MS analysis. Hence, the n-hexane extract of the seeds of M. officinalis unveiled twelverncompounds with a combined area percentage of 98.33%, the major constituents beingrn(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienoic acid (20.22%, 366.08 ppm), 14-methylpentadecanoic acidrn(19.52%, 353.45 ppm) and (9E)-octadecenoic acid (15.94%, 288.66 ppm). Fourrnsesquiterpenes, namely, caryophyllene oxide (113), cyperotundone (12), corymbolonern(114) and tricyclohumuladiol (115), were also isolated from the EtOAc extract of thernrhizomes of Cyperus esculentus. Furthermore, two compounds, namely, cis-coumaric acid-rn2-O-β-glucopyranoside (cis-melilotoside, 116) and 1,2-benzopyrone (coumarin, 65), werernisolated from the MeOH extract of the seeds of M. officinalis. Twelve compounds, namely,rnpentacosanol (119), acacetin (120), kaempferol (38), rhusflavanone (121), rhusflavonern(122), avicularin (123), quercetin (1), myricetin (2), quercitrin (124), shikimic acid (125),rnhyperoside (126), and myricetin-3-O-β-galactopyranoside (127) were obtained from R.rnglutinosa leaves and three compounds, namely, quercetin (1), guaijaverin (131) and vitexinrn(132) were isolated and characterized from the leaves R. natalensis. Spectroscopicrntechniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, FTIR, HRESIMS and single X-ray crystallographyrnwere used to characterize the isolated compounds.

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Phytochemical Studies Of Cyperus Esculentus Carissa Spinarum Melilotus Officinalis Rhus Glutinosa And Rhus Natalensis

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