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Repair And Recommissioning Of Process Heat Transfer Apparatus

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The repair and recommissioning of the process heat transfer apparatus was done in the pilot plant of chemical engineering department of institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu. The repair work was done under the supervision  and direction  of an experienced technician the repair work was initiated by troubleshooting which revealed the faulty parts of the apparatus, then followed by the search of material for construction of the damaged parts and reconstructioning of parts, polishing and Assembling of the parts, Electrical wiring which was performed by an electrician. However, the construction and reconstructioning of the parts was done in the mechanical engineering  pilot plant of  Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu. The following parts were repaired. Electric motor, electric pump switches (I, 2,3 and 4), ceiling rose, hose, clips, plug and bolts. As the end of the repair, the process heat transfer apparatus become functional and can be used to perform practical works in determining the rate of heat  transfer and equality of heat transferred from one source or body to another this report contains the steps (procedures) taken to achieve the aims as stated under aims  and objectives of the project.       





A              =      Area available for heat transfer

Amp         =      Unit of current (SI)

Cm3         =      Unit of volume

dt             =      Difference in Temperature

dx            =      Difference in length

h              =      Convective heat transfer coefficient

hp            =      horse power

k              =      Conductive heat transfer coefficient

kw/m2k   =      Unit of heat transfer coefficient

mm2         =      Unit (SI) of Area

q              =      Rate of heat transfer

 u             =      Overall heat transfer coefficient

um           =      Micrometer, Unit (SI) of wavelength

vac           =      Volts (SI unit of voltage) Alternative current

w             =      Watts (SI unit of electrical power)


Alloy             -      This is a partial or complete solid solution of one or more elements in a metallic matrix

Cold              -       Condition of having low temperature

Condenser     -      A device or unit used to condense vapour into liquid .

Conduction   -       The flow of heat or cold or current from one place to another through a solid material medium.

Convection    -      The flow of heat or cold from one point to another through a fluid medium

Corrosion      -       The breaking down of essential properties in a material due to chemical reaction with its surrounding.

Crude oil       -       A naturally occurring flammable liquid in rock formation in the earth consisting of complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights, plus other organic compounds.

Cryogenics    -       Cryogenics is the study of the production of very low temperature (below 1800C, - 23480F or 23K) and the behaviour of materials as those temperatures rather than the familiar temperature scale of fehrenheit and 123K and the Celsius cryogenicists use the Kelvin (and formerly rankine).

CT                -       Cool Tank (cool water (fluid) tank)

Dryers           -       An electrical household appliance that removes the water from clothes by attracting evaporation usually through heat and tumbling motion.

Eddy movement -  The whirling and tumbling movement of fluids due to mixing and agitation

Elementary entities – Particles or impurities present in solution with an element or solution.

Evaporator    -       An electrical appliance that removes water form wet solids or remove water from a solution containing excess water by the application of heat.

Fluids            -       This refers to liquid and gases

Fouling         -       This refers to the accumulation of unwanted materials on solid surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment.

Furnaces       -       These are heaters built for the purpose of heating homes in cold and ice regions

Heat              -       Any flow of energy from one body or system to another due to difference in temperature

HT                -       Heat dissipative tank

Mechanisms  -       From engineering perspective; it means a rigid bodies connected by joints in order to accomplish desired force and motion transmission.

Olefins          -       Any unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by double bond.

Opacity         -       This refers to something difficult to see through or perceive.

Pilot Plant     -      A small chemical processing system which is operated to generate information about the behaviour of the system for use in design of large facilities.

Radiation      -       Any process in which energy emitted by one body travels through a medium or through space ultimately to be absorbed by another body.

Solid             -       A state of matter characterized by resistance to deformation and change or volume.

Syngas          -      A name give to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

System          -       A set of interacting or interdependent entities real or abstract, forming an integrated whole.

TEMA            -      An abbreviation meaning, Tubular Exchange Manufacturer Association.

Temperature  -       A measure of the quantity of hotness or coldness on a body. It is also a measure related to the average kinetic energy of monatomic gas atoms as they move.

Velocity         -       The rate of change of positions, it is a vector physical quantity, both speed and direction are required to define it.











Title page                                                                        i

Letter of transmittal                                                       ii

Certification                                                                    iii

Dedication                                                                       iv

Acknowledgement                                                            v

Abstract                                                                          vi

List of figures                                                                  vii

Definition of terms                                                          viii

Table of contents                                                            xiv



Introduction                                                                  1

1.1      Background of study                                              1     

1.2      Statement of the problem                                       3

1.3      Purpose/Aims/Objectives of the Study                         3

1.4      Scope and limitation of the study                          5

1.5      Method of research                                                 7

1.6      Significance of the study                                        7

CHAPTER TWO                 

Literature Review                                                          9

2.1      Conduction                                                             10

2.2      Convection                                                              14

2.3      Radiation                                                                17

2.4      Overall analysis                                                      21

2.5      The heat exchanger                                                22



Methodology                                                                  28

3.1      Trouble shooting                                                     28

3.2      Searching for material                                            29

3.3      Construction and reconstruction                           31

3.4      Assembling and polishing                                       31

3.5      Electrical wiring                                                      32


Results/Analysis                                                   37


Discussion                                                                      40


Conclusion                                                                      44


Recommendation                                                            46

References                                                                      49












In the past years, when industries were trying to maneuver their was into the production of goods on large scale without much waste form the available raw materials, certain variables like temperature applies to fluids or rather dictated from body, fluid flow rate, pressure etc. This led to loss of valuable materials, wastes of money (capital) and many other factors which were considered in order for such problem as waste to be properly handled likewise in the pilot plant where there is production of goods in small scale, some of the problems mentioned above were also encountered and was able to be corrected using temperature control apparatus usually referred to as process heat transfer apparatus.

This process heat transfer equipment apparatus was developed as a result of the need of heat or in an attempt to reduce the quantity of heat or amount of heat entering or leaving a process plant so that only that required amount quantity of heat to obtain the best required amount quantity of heat to obtain the best product or to balance the generated heat is obtained.

From this it can be understood without bias that, this is why fluids must either be heated or cooled in a wide range of plant such as furnaces, evaporators, distillation units, dryers and reaction vessels (reactors).

This problem of control of flow of heat from a hot to cold vessel or system and vice versa form one of the most important areas of chemical engineering.





In the pilot plant of chemical Engineering, Institute of Management and Technology (IMT) Enugu, Nigeria, the process heat transfer apparatus which is used in impacting practical knowledge of theories received in the lecture hall (room) in the students ran down and to needed to be brought back to performance.

Few students were selected to execute the task and this report is a research work carried out by the concerned students.



The purpose of this research is as follows

i.            To bring the components parts of this equipment/apparatus back to functionality.

ii.          To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that transfers heat multidirectional clonally away from an apparatus that generates heat.

iii.        To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that can be used as either a heat sink, a heat dissipative pin or as a cooling fin or in application where thermal conduction in required of a plate-shaped content.

iv.         To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that is an effective thermal conductor and light weight

v.           To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that provides a configuration in which heat flux is relatively constant along paths through the process heat transfer apparatus.

vi.         To provide a process heat transfer apparatus that provides a direct thermal path along the fibre axis from the surface of the process thermal heat transfer apparatus to its edges.


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