AN ANALYSIS OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENTS EFFORTS IN ENCOURAGING YOUTHS TO EMBARK ON AGRICULTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN NIGERIA
(A STUDY OF FAFIN AND YEAP)
In this research work titled “An Analysis of Federal Governments Efforts in Encouraging Youths to Embark on Agricultural” with particular reference to FAFIN and YEAP the researcher examine the socio-economic characteristics of youths who are beneficiaries of the scheme. To ascertain the relevance of both schemes in Agricultural transformation of Nigeria. To investigate into real causes why youths shun venturing into Agricultural business. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources Primary and Secondary. Primary data were sourced from the use of questionnaires and oral interviews. Secondary data were sourced from journals, and other relevant materials. Extensive literature review was carried out on the direct literature and indirect literature on books, journals and past works. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. Chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses. At the end the researcher found out that Nigerian government several efforts in Transforming agriculture in the country by involving the youths. Also discovered that many Nigerian youths find it difficult to engage in agricultural production. Shown that FAFIN, YEAP and other agencies contributes greatly in the agricultural transformation in Nigeria, by ensuring that youths benefit from agriculture in the country. Also revealed that youths has significant impact in the development of agriculture in Nigeria.Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that Low capital outlay was identified. The rural banking scheme as well as other micro-credit agencies should be encouraged to accommodate the young cassava farmers (youth). Also savings mobilization should be encouraged among the rural youth. Small-holder farmers with fragmented farmland. It is suggested that government should pay attention on land consolidation programme in view of the fragmented holdings. The extension agents should be motivated to improve their work in terms of more coverage in the studied area. Government should encourage the youth by establishing tractor hiring services at a subsidized rate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page. . . . . . . . . ii
Approval page.. . . . . . . . iii
Dedication. . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement. . . . . . . . v
Abstract. . . . . . . . . . vi
Table of contents . . . . . . . vii
1.1 Background of the study . . . . . 1
1.2 Statement of problems . . . . . 6
1.3 Objective of the study. . . . . . 7
1.4 Research Question. . . . . . . 8
1.5 Research Hypothesis . . . . . . 9
1.6 Significance of the study.. . . . . 10
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study. . . . 11
1.8 Definition of terms. . . . . . . . 13
References. . . . . . . . 16
2.0 Review of Related Literature
2.1 The concept of Agriculture and Economic Growth . 18
2.2 Challenges to Agricultural Mechanization in Nigeria . 24
2.3 Challenges of Youths in Agriculture . . . 29
2.4 Major Reasons Youth in Nigeria do not like a
Career in Agriculture . . . . . . 41
2.5 Contribution of FAFIN in Supporting Agricultural
Growth in Nigeria . . . . . . 46
2.6 YEAP FAFIN as a tool for Youth empowerment in
Nigeria . . . . . . . . 52
2.7 Roles of Farmers’ Cooperatives in
Agricultural Development in Nigeria . . . 59
References. . . . . . . . 64
3.0 Research Design and Methodology
3.1 Research Design . . . . . . 66
3.2 Area Of The Study . . . . . . 66
3.3 Sources of Data . . . . . . 71
3.4 Research Population and Sample Size
Determination . . . . . . 72
3.5 Research Instrumentation . . . . 73
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the instrument . 73
3.7 Data Analysis . . . . . . . 74
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
4.1 Data Analysis . . . . . . . 75
4.2 Hypothesis Testing . . . . . 85
4.3 Discussion of finding . . . . . 89
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings. . . . . . 91
5.2 Conclusions. . . . . . . . 92
5.3 Recommendations. . . . . . . 94
Bibliography . . . . . . . 96
Appendix I. . . . . . . . 99
Appendix II . . . . . . . 100
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Agriculture is an important sector of the Nigerian economy with high potentials for employment generation, food security and poverty reduction. Agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, income and foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria. This was due to focused regional policies based on commodity comparative advantage (Azih, 2011). As at 1961, Nigeria was the leading exporter of groundnut with a world’s share of 42%. The country also had 27% of the world’s palm oil export, 18% of cocoa and 1.4% of cotton as the major West African cotton exporter. Up to the early 1970s, agriculture accounted for well over 80 percent of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the major value of the country’s exports (Oluigbo, 2012). Regrettably, the discovery of crude oil in the late 1960s and the huge financial gains benefitted from it made the government to shift its priority from agriculture to crude oil and relied on food importation as a means of feeding her citizens. The “glory” of agriculture however declined over the years hence Nigeria dominance in the export of groundnut was eclipsed by China, United States of America (USA) and Argentina as at 2008.
Indonesia and Malaysia took over in palm oil; Cote d’voire and Ghana also become the leading exporter of cocoa while Mali and Bukina Faso led cotton exports (Azih, 2011). Consequently, Nigeria is currently one of the largest importers of food in the world, spending over $10 billion annually importing wheat, rice, sugar and fish. Petroleum thus became the pivot around which the nation’s economy revolved such that today, any quake in that sector has adverse negative effects on the whole economy.
The poor state of youth participation in agricultural activities in Nigeria has been a matter of great concern among agriculturists, agricultural researchers as well as administrators. This is because the present poor state of decline in agricultural production has dimmed the hope of raising the level of agricultural production to ensure sustainable food security for the ever increasing population of Nigeria.
One of the major setbacks of agricultural development programmes is attributed to the inability of the federal government to integrate youths into the mainstream of the numerous agricultural development programmes implemented over the years (Ijere, 1992). For a country to attain economic stability the agricultural sector must be vibrant and the youths encouraged to imbibe farming as a noble profession (Ojediran, 1997).
Youths have the potential to overcome some of the major constraints to expanding animal production in developing countries such as pest control, feeding, genetic improvement and protection against predators because they are often more open to new ideas and practices than adult farmers. They play an important role in awareness raising on different subjects (Ijere, 1992).
Mobilizing the youths for national development is a common phenomenon amongst the western and developing countries. In such countries as Great Britain, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, the United States of America and Tanzania, the involvement of youths in agricultural production through youth programmes had contributed significantly to agricultural development and empowering the citizenry and youths to always meet the full needs and deep seated aspiration to be self sufficient in food production (FAO, 1990). Indeed, since the youths are the future of any country, it is useful to develop them into patriotic citizens, future progressive farmers and better citizens. The youth clubs are the nurseries for them (Ajayi, 2006).
Four major problems among several others accounted largely for youth’s lack of interest in Agriculture, namely:
1. Drudgery in farm operations.
2. Lack of competitive market for Agricultural products.
3. Lack of start-up capital for the youths.
4. iv. Lack of Buy Back Scheme (BBC) from the Government However, the ATA team is working very hard to address all these problems through the following Government Initiatives that are mostly Private sector driven but Government enabled.
Some of the programmes include:
i. The Private Sector Driven Agricultural Mechanization Programme, (PSDAMP)
ii. Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZs).
iii. One Stop Agro-Centre (OSAC).
iv. Youth Employment in Agriculture Programme (YEAP).
v. Growth Enhancement Support (GES) Scheme.
vi. Nigeria Incentive Based Risk sharing System for Agricultural Lending (NIRSAL)
vii. Commercial Agriculture Development Project (CADP)
viii. National Programme for Food Security (NPFS)
All these and many other sector tried to play significant role in the National food and social security by net merely, encouraging the Nigerian youths to take up agriculture as a business or as a way of life but also create a platform for creative participation of youths in Agriculture because of the population of aging farmers posed a significant threat to the agricultural sector and unless youth farmers are developed, the national food security would be compromised.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The poor state of agricultural productivity and low esteem of agriculture as manifested in rural-urban migration, youths’ low interest in farming, lack of industrial firms to process agricultural products and skilled labour among others has led to worsening Nigerian food deficit (NDE, 2006). The realization of this situation led the federal government to embark on ways to revitalize the poor food situation by constructively involving youth in agriculture at secondary school level. This was through the national policy on education which made practical agriculture a core subject at the junior and secondary school level and agricultural science as a vocational subject (FMAWD, 1989).
In order to involve youth in agriculture to reap the benefit of the constructive engagement of youth in agriculture, the question relates to the following questions: What is the role of youths in agricultural development in the study area? In which community based non-formal youth agricultural educational programmes do youths participate? Which problems inhibit youth participation in agricultural activities?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this research work is to evaluate the analysis of federal government efforts in encouraging youths to embark on Agricultural transformation in Nigeria with particular reference to The Fund for Agricultural Finance in Nigeria (FAFIN) and Youth Employment in Agriculture Programme (YEAP). The general objectives of this research work includes the following;
1. To examine the socio-economic characteristics of youths who are beneficiaries of the scheme.
2. To ascertain the relevance of both schemes in Agricultural transformation of Nigeria.
3. To investigate into real causes why youths shun venturing into Agricultural business.
4. To identify why Agriculture as a source of foreign exchange earner for Nigeria has plummeted.
5. To identify the problems militating against both schemes and to make recommendations based on the findings.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
Based on the objectives above the researcher developed the following research questions;
1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of youths who are beneficiaries of the scheme?
2. What are the relevance of both schemes in Agricultural transformation of Nigeria?
3. What are the real causes why youths shun venturing into Agricultural business?
4. Why has Agriculture as a source of foreign exchange earner for Nigeria plummeted?
5. What are the problems militating against both schemes and to make recommendations based on the findings.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: FAFIN and YEAP are not relevant in Agricultural transformation of Nigeria.
H1: FAFIN and YEAP are very important in Agricultural transformation of Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research work will be on two different fractions;
1.6.1 Theoretical Significance
This study on the analysis of federal government efforts in encouraging youths to embark on Agricultural transformation in Nigeria will help for the development of academic works in the area of Agriculture.
It will also help the researcher to know more on federal government efforts in encouraging youths to embark on Agricultural transformation in Nigeria with particular reference to The Fund for Agricultural Finance in Nigeria (FAFIN) and Youth Employment in Agriculture Programme (YEAP).
This study will also be of help to future researchers as it will serve as a project material to them.
1.6.2 Practical Significance
This study will be of great help to Nigerians as it will enrich their knowledge on the effort of Nigerian Government in Transforming agriculture in the country by involving the youths. The relevance of FAFIN and YEAP in the agricultural transformation in Nigeria. The impact of the youths in the development of agriculture in Nigeria. and also the impact of agriculture in the development of Nigerian economy. The study will help the two schemes to recognizes their duty in the area of encouraging the youths to get involved in Agriculture, for the development of Nigeria economy.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the analysis of federal government efforts encouraging youths to embark on Agricultural transformation in Nigeria with particular reference to The Fund for Agricultural Finance in Nigeria (FAFIN) and Youth Employment in Agriculture Programme (YEAP).
Limitation of the Study
In carrying out this study the writers or researchers faced a number of constraints, some of which were:
FINANCE: The cost includes distribution and collection of questionnaire and transport expenses in conducting the research.
TIME: Rationing of time, so as to accommodate other eight courses within the remaining few weeks to the first semester examination.
Furthermore, our developing society is still trying to imbibe the recording, keeping and collecting information to be made available for future research work as compared to the education resources information centers obtainable le in the developed countries. These limitations however were not allowed to destroy the essence of this project.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Agriculture: The term agriculture is said to be the cultivation of animals, plants, Fungi and other life form for food, fiber, boifuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
FAFIN: Fund for Agricultural Finance in Nigeria, this programme has been designed to create a new generation of 750, 000 young commercial farmers and agribusiness leaders (Nagroprenares) that will make Nigerian’s Agriculture more efficient, profitable and competitive.
YEAP: Youth Employment in Agriculture Programme, this is formal president Goodluck Jonathan’s flagship programme to raise a new cadre of youth farmers and agribusiness leaders in Nigeria.
Employment: This is an agreement between an employer and an employee that the employee will provide certain services on the job employers designated work place, to facilitate the accomplishment of the employer organizations, goals and mission, in return for compensation.
GESS: Growth Enhancement Support Scheme: this is a prrogramme designed to capture agricultural development following a value chain approach of various ammoditics to capture all interested women, men and the youths.
Transformation: this is a process of profound and radical change that drients an organization in a new direction and takes it to an entirely different level of effectiveness.
NAFIN: National Agricultural Formation of Nigeria
ATA: Agricultural Transformation Agenda, this is an initiative of the federal Government and ministry of Agriculture and rural development launch in the year 2012 to support that former president’s Transformation Agenda.
NIRSAL: Nigeria Risk Sharing System for Agricultural lending, this is another agricultural milestone, it is a risk sharing facility working with the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) in lending to farmers.
Development: development is said to be a process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions.
Rural development: This is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in relatively isolated and sparely populated.