REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT THROUGH THE ACTIVITIES OF AGRO- INDUSTRIAL CO-OPERATIVE.
(A CASE STUDY OF EZZA NORTH L.G.A IN EBONYI STATE)
The research work on the topic ‘reducing unemployment through agro Industrial co-operative. (a case study of Ezza north in Ebonyi state). As was carried out to survey the past programme and policies constituted by government to mobilize peasant farmers into agricultural co-operative and industries to be more productive as a way of facilitating the attainment of self sufficiency in agro industrial co-operative in the country. The research work also highlights the cause of unemployment gendered poverty in light of existing programmes and mechanism aimed at promoting literacy education and poverty eradication, especially among Ezza North. Majority of Ezza population live in rural communities and it is where high levels of literacy and poverty are prevalent. With the help of questionnaire 1 observed that, people in Ezza north, remain poor despite their not having enough land, rivers, streams, forest, and natural resource e.g (salt). The study was conducted to examine how unemployment can be reduced thoroughly the establishment of agro- industrial co-operative in Ezza North L.G.A. Also the general constraints that affect these objectives in Ezza North L.G.A were also identified. These include, lack of fund to establish small scale industries are conceived and inefficient extension services, inadequate farm storage facilities, marketing outlets, inability to get loan from bank, technology input, complex land tenure system, non-restrictions of membership which might bring in people of questionable character whose membership may lead to the downfall of the society among others. In conclusion the researcher deemed it necessary that every hand must be on desk to encourage the establishment of co-operative enterprise, since it is now obvious in Nigeria, that the only option left for us is to adopt the socio economic model of mutual self help.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Importance of the study
1.4 Importance of the study
1.5 Scope and limitation of the study
1.6 Research questions
1.7 Definition of terms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 definition of unemployment
2.2 causes of unemployment
2.3 importance of improving agro- industrial co-operative
2.4 nature of the agro-industrialization
2.5 Co-operative as a means of improving agricultural industries.
2.6 Problem imposed by co-operative on agro-industrial programme
2.7 Imparts of processes of agro industrialization & environmental impacts of agro industrialization.
2.8 Functions of marketing co-op in improving agro- industrial production.
2.9 Method of investigations& methods of data analysis
3.0 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 population of the study
3.2 sources of data
3.3 primary sources
3.4 secondary sources
3.5 method of investigation
3.6 method of data analysis
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 data presentation
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of findings
Cooperatives play a crucial role in promoting values of self-reliance, good governance, equity and transparency. The concept of cooperatives is based upon the ethnical values of openness, honesty and social responsibility. They are organized by a group of persons voluntarily coming together to meet their common social, economic and cultural needs. They are owned and controlled by members in a democratic manner.
The promotion of sustainable livelihoods is strongly linked with income generation activities for the community. Cooperatives play a major role in enhancing such activities and satisfying the basic community needs. They provides opportunities to people to organize service. Such as financial service, agricultural extension and marketing service, input supply etc. collectively by pooling their resources without depending upon the government or other agencies.
It has been argued that cooperatives are well placed to mobilize social capital and can therefore bridge the economic and the social by providing employment, an equitable distribution of profits and above all, social justice.
Typically, cooperatives place more emphasis on job security for employee-members and employees’ family members pay competitive wages, promote additional income through profit-staring, distribution of dividends and other benefits and support community facilities such as health clinics and schools, than to private sector businesses.
The cooperative model, therefore, offers an important employment creation opportunity in the face of the global employment and underemployment problem. Currently, it is estimated that the global cooperative movement directly provides productive self-employment for several hundred million worker owners of production and services cooperative, as well as the non-members employees of these and other cooperative enterprises.
Cooperatives are also major source of employment a large scale enterprises providing food stuffs, services to consumers, and financial services. In Agriculture sector cooperatives can play a very significant role, in both developed and developing states in Nigeria.
Agricultural cooperative creates employment in areas such as production, marketing, credit, insurance, and transportation. Given that 70% of the world’s poor reside in rural areas, employment growth in rural areas should be strengthened by increasing agricultural productivity, and also through the crediting of non farm employment.
With the increasing focus on the revival of the agricultural sector towards poverty reduction, policy makers should take the opportunity to further promote the cooperative model as a mechanism for employment creation in this sector. Cooperatives are also providing more quality job opportunities for youth, women, indigenous people, persons with disabilities and other marginalized groups. Indigenous peoples have also used the cooperative skill sustaining their cultural identity and way of life.
Cooperative efforts have enabled more efficient utilization and adaptation of local resources and production methods, while strengthening the capacities of indigenous groups in negotiating for fairer market conditions
Cooperative can reduce unemployment through competitive agro-industries. Competitive agro industries can create employment, income opportunities for developing world. According to Vienna, 4 November 2009, the development of competitive agro-industries is crucial for creating employment and generating income opportunities, as well as enhancing the quality of and demand for farm products. Agro-industries can have a real impact on international development by increasing economic growth and reducing poverty in both rural and urban areas in developing countries. It is estimated that 50% of global agricultural output is marketed through cooperatives.
1.2 Background of the Study
Every student requires a particular institutional framework, one of such framework of the study is the “cooperative” the word cooperative can have different interpretations. In a Layman’s language, it means working together or working mutually. The second interpretation, which is where the emphasis means a special type of cooperative.
The school of thought describes cooperative as business undertaking owned and operated by voluntary association in order to provide themselves with work and wages or with goods and services.
The international cooperative Alliance (I.C.A) defines cooperative as an autonomous Association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically controlled enterprise.
The role of cooperatives in Agro-industrialization is an important topic to help reduce unemployment in Nigeria and Enugu North.
In Enugu North, most inhabitants survive through agro-industries, e.g. substantial farming, rearing of animals processing, etc which attracted many interested members to join cooperative.
Improving the agricultural production was their main target and interest and at the same time lifting the level of its individuals.
Since the early 1990’s there has been a rapid process of agro-industrialization in many developing countries, characterized by the establishment of private and formal sector firms across an increasing array of food and non-food sectors
In this regard we can posit three broad sets of changes first, the growth of agro-processing, distribution, and agricultural input, provision activities off-farm by agro-industrial firms. Second, institutional or organizational changes to the relations between agro industrial firms and primary producers, for example, increasing levels of vertical integration. Third, changes in the primary production sector in terms of product composition, technology, sectional and market structures etc.
The issue of unemployment is Nigeria is quite alarming, and it is growing everyday, with many graduates leaving tertiary institutions on a daily basis, without hope of securing paid employment.
Given this realization, the only means of reducing unemployment is through self-employment and the government has a lot to do by encouraging the citizens to embark on small and medium scale business or to join cooperative societies.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Today, there is a vast unemployment in Nigeria and Enugu North in particular. After many years of democracy, There are graduates of 15 years starting, Room the street of Enugu in search of white-collar jobs that don’t exist. Unemployment is still on the increased irrespective of federal government budget to curb the scourge. In the year 2000 the federal government budget N10 billion and N20 billion in 2001 to deal with unemployment yet, unemployment increase on daily basis. Both the state and federal government are lunching out a lot of programmes, on small business enterprise, yet unemployment is increasing.
It is unfortunate that despite the large number of highly skilled graduates in the country, majority of them are unemployed, or under-employed, i.e. doing jobs that are deemed below their qualification.
Nigeria had embarked on various programmes and policies costing hundreds of millions of naira aimed at reviving the depressed agricultural cooperative was instituted so as to organize the small scale farmers who are still involved in manual labor type of farming in cooperative and had failed to produce enough food for our teeming population thereby the country to be involved in importation of large quantity of food with a huge percentage decline in agricultural exports.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general purpose of this report is undertaken as a study on how unemployment can be reducing through Agro-industries in Enugu North L.G.A from 2000-2012.
And also this project report is undertaken as a study of the existing farmers’ cooperative societies and their effects in improving development of agriculture specify.
Finally the study has the following objectives:
i. To examine the impact of Agro-industries cooperative and societies.
ii. To investigate the problems facing the establishment of small scale industrie s in Enugu North.
iii. To make recommendations on how to improve cooperative societies in order to meet the demand of reducing unemployment.
iv. To examine the volume of employment created by cooperatives.
v. To identify the support for modern farming investment for industrial development and expansion of market through cooperative movement
vi. To identify the problem of Agro-industries movement in creating job opportunities in Nigeria and Enugu North.
vii. Finally to find out the number of people employed by cooperative society in Enugu North from 2000-2012.
1.4 Importance of the Study
There is the need for reducing unemployment in our society and Enugu North in particular and the only way out is through cooperative movement.
Agriculture is so important in order to sustain any economy. Moreover, cooperative using the agricultural sector, thus any effort geared towards carrying out research aimed at improving the agricultural production/small scale industries in other to reduce unemployment.
It is envisaged that the findings, suggestions and recommendations of this study will be beneficial to all members and non members of cooperative society and government as well. This research will go a long way to encourage people to join cooperative societies.
Presently, our farmers are not adequately remunerated despite the fact they bend over double trying to make the state sufficient and self-reliant in food production. They cannot compete with their counterparts in Nigeria not to talk of other part of the world.
Based on the findings of this study and suggestions proffered it is strongly believed that the policy makers government would encourage peasant farmers to voluntarily join the cooperative societies.
Furthermore, colleges of cooperative schools and researcher who wish to carry out research in this field have been provided a springboard from where they can take off.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the study
The scope of the research is Enugu North local government area of Enugu state. The research is to determine the impact and effect of unemployment reduction through Agro-industrial cooperative movement with specific emphasis on “Enugu rural area”.
The research covers the operation of cooperative movement on how they can reduce unemployment through agro-industries/creation of small scale industries and food production.
In the course of generating this work, the researcher faced several handicaps which include inadequacy of time to been easy to contact most of the members of the cooperative and the state cooperative apexes whose views would have helped encouraging a broad based approached, as literature on the topic is rather scanty.
Financial constrains coupled with ban of Okada in Enugu city also rendered my mobility rather limited.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Most of the term (words or phrase that are used in this projects reports may be unfamiliar or may have peculiar meaning and connotation).
1. Agro-industrial society: Is defined as the subset of the manufacturing sector that processes raw materials and intermediate products derived from agriculture, fisheries and forestry.
2. Cooperative society: It is a form of organization whereby people voluntarily associate together as human beings on the basis of equality for the promotion of the economic interests of themselves.
3. Small scale individual farmers: This implies that a farmer whose total cultivable framed is not more than hectares and whose farm labour requirement are largely supplied by his family, his sells are goods in a localized market.
4. Agricultural productivity: The index of the ratio of the value of the total from output to the value of day to day problems facing the farms.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the numbers of people employed by cooperative societies in Enugu North?
2. What are the problems of cooperative societies in Enugu North?
3. Does agricultural product/small scale u\industries helps to improve peoples’ standard of living?
4. To what extent has agro-industries contributed tremendously to the overall development of economy of Nigeria and Enugu North?
5. What impact is agro-industrialization having on cooperatives in Enugu North?
6. What are the challenges for Enugu North in promoting Agro-industrialization in a manner that is of maximum benefit?
7. Does government show much concern to appreciate the work of cooperative in increasing productivity in Enugu North?