HOW TO INCREASE THE ECONOMY OF ENUGU STATE THROUGH THE MASSIVE PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA AND RICE
(A CASE STUDY NKEANU EAST AND ANINRI LGA)
In this research work titled “How to increase the economy of Enugu State through the massive production of cassava and rice with particular reference to Nkanu East and Aninri LGA" the study examined the impact of the production of cassava and rice on the development of Nkanu East and Aniri local government area. Ascertained the extent of production of cassava and rice in the selected areas in Enugu state. evaluated the contribution of cassava and rice production to the economy of Nkanu East and Aniri respectively. Identified the problems faced in the militating against the production rice and cassava in Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state. Data for the study was sourced from two main sources Primary and Secondary. Primary data were sourced from the use of questionnaires and oral interviews. Secondary data were sourced from journals, and other relevant materials. Extensive literature review was carried out on the direct literature and indirect literature on books, journals and past works. The research instrument used in this study includes oral interview and questionnaire. The questionnaire is structural as to contain both close and open ended question. Simple tables and percentages were used in treatment of data. Chi-square was used in testing the hypotheses. At the end the researcher found out that Massive production of cassava and rice has significant impact on the development of Enugu state. the researcher discovered that Cassava and rice are produced at a high rate in Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state. It was also observed that there are problems associated with cassava and rice production in Nkanu East and Aniri local government area. based on the findings, the researcher recommends that Favorable government policies should be sustained to encourage production of rice and cassava in Nigeria. There should be Promotion of viable group formation through offering of incentive and capacity building programmes. Development of prototype peeling, washing and drying machines suitable for small and medium scale operations. There should be Linkage of processors and marketers with industrial end-users, financial institutions etc to be accorded top priority.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page. . . . . . . . . ii
Approval page.. . . . . . . . iii
Dedication. . . . . . . . . iv
Acknowledgement. . . . . . . . v
Abstract. . . . . . . . . . vi
Table of contents. .. . . . . . . vii
1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Background of the study . . . . . 1
1.2 Why massive production of Cassava and Rice in
Nkanu East and Aninri L.G.As. . . . 6
1.3 Statement of problems . . . . . 9
1.4 Objective of the study. . . . . . 13
1.5 Research Question. . . . . . . 14
1.6 Significance of the study.. . . . . 14
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study. . . . 16
1.8 Definition of terms. . . . . . . . 17
References. . . . . . . . 19
2.0 Review of Related Literature. . . . . 20
2.1 Cassava Production In Enugu State . . . 20
2.1.1 Processing Methods . . . . . . 22
2.2 Achieving self-sufficiency in rice production by 2015 .27
2.3 Economic Analysis Of Cassava Production . 32
2.4 Cassava Processing Profitability. . . 35
2.5 Assessment Of Presidential Of Initiative On Cassava .35
2.5.1 Traditional Food Oriented Market .. . . 38
2. 5.2 Industrial Market Of Cassava. . . . 42
2.6 Potential Of Cassava Marketing In Economic .
Development Of Nigeria In Enugu State. . . 45
2.7 Problems And Issues Relating To Cassava . 47
2.8 IFAD to boost rice, cassava production in Nigeria with
N1.5bn . . . . . . . . 50
References. . .. . . . . . 53
3.0 Research Design and Methodology.. . . 55
3.1 Area Of The Study . . . . . . 55
3.3 Population Of The Study . . . . . 56
3.4 Sample Size Determination . . . . 59
3.5 Research Instrumentation . . . . 60
3.6 Validity . . . . . . . . 62
3.7 Reliability. . . . . . . . 62
3.8 Analytical Techniques . . . . . 63
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data . . . . . 65
4.1 Presentation Of Data And Analysis . . 66
4.2 Hypothesis Testing . . . . . 75
5.0 Summary of Findings, Conclusion and
Recommendations . . . . . . . 88
5.1 Summary of Findings. . . . . . 88
5.2 Conclusions. . . . . . . . 90
5.3 Recommendations. . . . . . . 92
Bibliography . . . . . . . 94
Appendix I. . . . . . . . 96
Appendix II . . . . . . . 97
The economy of Enugu state is grown through agriculture especially in the massive production of Cassava and Rice in Nkanu East and Aninri Local Government Areas. There soil is very fertile for the farming activities. The government is to give them the input like fertilizers, insecticides, faming tools, mechanized machines and also give them loans and grants.
1.1 Background Of The Study
Cassava and Rice is grown in every region in Nigeria and have become a very important staple food. Cultivation is largely by small-holder farmers who are also involved in paddy processing by means of small scale mills with average capacity of two tons per day in the case of rice. They also widely cultivated crops in the Southern part of the country in terms od area devoted to them and numbers of famers growing them.
Therefore, Cassava and rice as a good cash crops and are fast replacing yam and other traditional staple foods of the area.
With average per capita consumption of 40kg per year, translating to a national consumption volume of five to six million tons per year, the demand and price trend follows the lead of the imported long-grain rice sourced from India and Thailand by rice merchants. Total import volumes oscillate from 1.7 million tons to 3.2 million tons, depending on the tariff structure, volume of local production and the prevailing local circumstances, weather and other vagaries in the rice value chain.
Recognizing Nigeria’s tremendous Agricultural potentials, the government has accepted the view that the country should resolve to make agriculture the main source of living of the economy and to Enugu state. Agricultural development has to with the increase of the agricultural productivity to be able to generate substantial surpluses.
The issues of surpluses lead to the issue of marketing because when they engage in large production, and then there will be surpluses left out.
Production of surpluses should occur simultaneously with adequate processing and store it and make sure that the surpluses are waste.
We find out that the surpluses, if they are not appropriately processed, it may bring about increase in the harvest losses which reduces the productivity and income in the agricultural sector (RUSEP 2002).
Nigeria is currently the largest cassava producer in the world with estimated annual production of about 40 million metric tones. About 90% of this is however, consumed as food. Cassava is next to petroleum as major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The presidential initiative on cassava has set in motion the process of achieving on annual basis 5 billion dollars from export of cassava. This plan also involves building of the domestic productive capacity to an efficiently, profitable and sustainable satisfaction to the new market demand with the quality and quantity required to realize the objective. One of the strategies put in place to realize this noble objective is the establishment of 6-farmgate primary processing centers.
In Enugu state Cassava and rice has become the most delicacy that no family can do without them. Because of their indispensable and high demand of these crops, the economy of Enugu state can growth their massive production. There are 17 created local government areas in Enugu state, among them Nkanu East and Aninri Local Government Area, have high production of cassava and rice respectively, these two local government areas have continuously grown these crops in large quantity to ensure the following;
a. Sufficient food and increasing income to famers.
b. It also creates revenue to the state government.
c. Provision of job opportunity, raw materials for agro-based industries.
d. Development of towns such as provision of social amenities like, electricity, pip born water, good and motorable roads are also provided because of the extent of commercial production.
The state has achieve a high economy by massive production of cassava and rice instead of concentrating on natural resources (Coal), which the mining or the exploration of this material decline.
Coal is mainly used as a major source of fuel in the home and railway locomotive in the past (Iwenna, 2008). Agriculture, mainly the production of cassava and rice in Ugbawka, Nkerefi, Ekpawju, Amagu- Nze, home (Nkanu East) and Uduma, Ezinesi, Nenwe, Mpu, Okpanku, Ndeagbor (Aninri) L.G.A. respectively, has contributed the growing of the economy of Enugu state since the progressing downward of coal mining in the state.
1.2 Why Massive Production Of Cassava And Rice In Nkanu East And Aniri Local Government Area
Cassava, just like yam, is a root and tuber crop. It has underground roots which can be consumed by man and livestock animals after processing (Iwena 2008). It has advantages over yam, in that it can grow in relatively poor soil and low rainfall areas. The root is also rich in carbohydrates. There are two varieties/cultivars of cassava namely (Manilot Utilissima). Because of high adaptability of these varieties of cassava to poor soil and low rainfall. These advantages encourage farmers to continuously produce cassava.
In Ugbawka, sixty percent (60%) of the populace with their active age primarily engaged in farming, particularly production of cassava in high quality and quantity than other crops. Also the varieties/ cultivars of rice includes swamp rice (Toma, BG 70 and BG-B24) and the upland rice (Agbede) and these requires light fertile soil and medium rainfall (Iwena 2008).
Oduma and Nome soil in Aninri and Nkanu East local government area of Enugu state are suitable for rice production, the suitability of Oduma and Nome soil to rice production has directed the mind of every member of the villages to massive rice production. Rice is the world’s most important human food crop and can also be processed into product such as instant or cooking rice, rice flour, rice starch and animal feed (the Japanese fermented alcoholic beverage)Okoli, E.C and Ogu, E.O, 2000). With all these products gotten from rice and high demand of these products from world population, the people from Oduma and Nome concentrate mostly on massive production of rice. This concentration has reduced the rate of unemployment and save the state government from paying high number of workers salary at the end of the month.
However, marketing of cassava in Enugu state especially in Nkanu and Aninri local government areas has been characterized with a lot of deficiencies. There deficiencies have constrained sustainable agricultural development in one way6 or the other. In Enugu, several policy studies have been commissioned to identify potential contributions of agricultural marketing policy to agricultural development, these studies, however, failed to incorporate strategies for combating perennial constraints to effective and efficient food marketing in Enugu.
The socio economic importance of cassava and rice and accidental introduction of posts and diseases which ravaged most cassava advice fields in the major producing areas led to the federal government direct intervention in a way of rending effort to the subsection, in the implementation to the IFAD assisted cassava multiplication project (CMP) between 1987 and 1997. As part of efforts to reduce the country dependence on rice imports, the federal government launched the presidential initial on accelerated rice production.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
Agricultural production efficiency has been bedeviled by both external and internal related factors. These factors are also peculiar to cassava and riceproduction in Nigeria and Enugu in particular (FMARD 2004). The agricultural products have served the economy well in the past but currently inadequate in the face of growing demand for products due to population growth and changing of dietary demand patterns. There is the inadequacy of transport service in rural areas. The Rural feeder roads are in a very bad condition. The entire rural communities rely mainly on human transport before they will talk of conveying their produce.
Government intervention and effort towards this include government program such as National Accelerated food production programe (NAFPP) and Operation feed the nation (OFN), the Agricultural Development project (ADP), the development of the state Agricultural research system and their close collaboration international agricultural centre and large scale planting materials, multiplication and distribution facilitated by international fund for Agricultural programme (CMP) activities of oil companies and church organizations. Through this efforts, appreciable grogram has been made in genetic improvement, agronomic practices, root storage, also in the development of processing technology and rural infrastructure, concerned efforts have been made to introduce improved faming practice of famers.
There is the problem of marketing information because the required data required are not available and even those that are available is not being managed properly to generate the required information to support decision making by the producers, consumers, government officials and other market participants.
There are no official or organized ways of transmitting price information in Nigerian’s agricultural produce; therefore there is no mechanism for coordinating production activities of the millions of farmers with the demand of millions of individual, corporate and institutional consumers. The paucity of data and information also limit forecasting planning farm management and marketing practices.
Another problem associated with the production of agricultural produce in Nigeria is the existence of an inefficient and inadequate storage system. As a result there is a substantial waste at the farm level and the poor storage system also contributes to price fluctuations in the agricultural markets whereby produce prices are low during harvest time’s adversely affecting farmer incomes. At times the price fluctuations are magnified by speculative activities in the face of scarcity of market information all in favour of producers only further aggravating the poor economic position of farmers.
Another related problem is that of poor storage system in the low level of processing of agricultural produce in Nigeria, Enugu state in particular. In view of the low level of food processing in Nigeria for example the use of this activity in increasing effective supply of food as well as solve some nutritional problems of human beings is not possible.
In summary agricultural processing and marketing have problems associated with them which include:
a. Poor storage of the processed products which leads to its rottenness.
b. Low level of food processing because of lack of processing machines.
c. Poor market information system.
d. Limited purchasing power of consumers.
1.4 Objective of the study
The major objective objectives of this is to examine how to increase the economy of Enugu state through massive production of cassava and rice with particular reference to Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state. The specific objectives of this research work includes;
1. To examine the impact of the production of cassava and rice on the development of Nkanu East and Aniri local government area.
2. To ascertain the extent of production of cassava and rice in the selected areas in Enugu state.
3. To evaluate the contribution of cassava and rice production to the economy of Nkanu East and Aniri respectively.
4. To identify the problems faced in the militating against the production rice and cassava in Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state.
5. To proffer possible solutions to the problems identified.
1.5 Research Questions
1. What are the impact of the production of cassava and rice on the development of Nkanu East and Aniri local government area?
2. To what extent is cassava and rice produced in the selected areas in Enugu state?
3. What are the contributions of cassava and rice production to the economy of Nkanu East and Aniri respectively?
4. What are the problems faced in the militating against the production rice and cassava in Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state?
1.6 Significance Of The Study
It is important to point out that during the completion of this project, it will be of immense significance;
a. Economy: This work will help to improve the national output and thereby increase the national income. This is because of improvement in the efficiency and effectiveness of the operations as well as the overall success of the state, which will be achieved through production of cassava and rice.
b. Self employed: due to an indispensable and high demand Cassava and rice nation wide, so many people in Nkanu East and Aniri have offered themselves job in cassava and rice production this offer reduce the rate of unemployment and also reduce the rate of problems facing the state government to pay their already existing workers
c. Good standard of living: with well paid employment, man enjoy good standard of living especially the rural areas or communities.
d. Economic development: State and nations economic growth has assessed by the level of industrialization attained by it, and raw materials from agriculture are indispensable commodity of industrialization. Agro-chemicals such as fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides are produced in industries and are used to increase agricultural production at sustainable level (Cramer, 1976).
1.7 Scope And Limitation Of The Study
The scope of this study is on “how to increase the economy of Enugu state through massive production of cassava and rice”. The researcher will restrict her work to Nkanu East and Aniri local government area of Enugu state.
Any other reference to materials, place, items, activities, periods is just for purpose of clarity and vivid understanding of the topic and not within the scope.
During the period of carrying out this research work some factors acts as limitations to the work, which includes;
1. INADEQUATE FINANCE: The researcher is a full time student and does not have enough finance to carry out this research work.
2. INADEQUATE TIME: the researcher does not have enough time to cover the research work because he or she faces another work load as a student and house wife.
3. INADEQUATE RESPONDS: The respondents are not ready to give proper information that could help the researcher.
4. PRESSURE OF ACADEMIC WORK: The researcher have been hindered by pressure of academic work from achieving the extensive research this work should have deserved.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Cassava: The starchy root of a tropical with thick root that you can eat, or the floor made from this root.
Rice: is the seed of monocot plants olyza sativa (Asian rice) or Orspa glaberima (African Rice) as acealed grain. It is a food that consist of small white grains that you boil in water until they become soft enough to eat.
Processing: According to Obodoechi processing means a series of action that are done in order to achieve a particular result.
Marketing: This is advertising or promoting of a product in order for the consumers to benefit from it.
Agriculture: This is the science or practice of farming i.e.
Cultivating of the soil or rearing of animals.